POPULATION AND MANPOWER
The present population of Czechoslovakia--in a comparable territory of 127.8 thousand square kilometers, i.e., without Carpatho-Ruthenia, which was incorporated into the USSR at the end of the war--decreased, in terms of midyear averages, from 14.4 million in the last peace year, 1937, to 14.2 million in 1945 and to 12.3 million in 1948. The main factors causing this decrease were the wartime losses suffered by the Czechoslovak armies in the east and west and the deportation and executions of the home population, as well as the postwar expulsion of a great part of the German population and the exchange of Hungarians from Slovakia and Slovaks from Hungary. On the other hand, groups of Czechs and Slovaks who had lived abroad returned to Czechoslovakia after the Second World War. It would not serve any useful purpose in the present economic study to examine these factors in detail. The reader is only requested to bear in mind, when making comparisons with prewar days, that, besides the reduction in territory (for which, unless otherwise stated, a due correction of prewar figures has been made throughout this study), there was a population decline of 14.5 per cent between 1937 and 1948, on comparable territory.
In the decade under study, the changes of population through migration have been negligible. Emigration due to economic considerations, which was rather important at the beginning of this century, has been almost completely stopped. In 1954, 1955, and 1956, respectively, only 2.7, 3.3, and 2.7 thousand people legally emigrated, while 2.0, 2.3, and 1.8 thousand came into Czechoslovakia. Official migration data for the two later years are not available to the author, yet it is safe to assume that they are as low as for 1954-56. Somewhat greater was the flow of refugees to the West in 1948 and subsequent years, which, similarly to the transfer of a part of the German and Hungarian population, is not recognized in the official Cechoslovak migration figures. No reliable statistical data are available, yet most estimates of the total number of refugees since 1948 (up to 1958) are in the range of 60 to 80 thousand; the rate of refugees amounted thus, over a period of ten years, to only 0.4-0.6 per cent of the