If the approximations of national accounts in Chapter 10 have fair validity--and the quantitative analysis by branches of the Czechoslovak economy in Chapters 2 to 6 seems to support this--the over-all increase in per capita production of goods and services over the period 1948-57 in Czechoslovakia was approximately the same as in the Western European market economies that had a comparably advanced economic level: Austria, West Germany, and France. (Czechoslovak growth of production, measured in the above-described way, appears to have been somewhat faster than the growth in the United Kingdom or the United States; however, the higher level of production in these two countries in the base year of our comparisons is to be taken into account.)
Yet, to achieve a comparable, or slightly higher, growth of per capita output, a much greater input of both labor and fixed capital assets was needed in Czechoslovakia during the period under study.
The percentage of economically active population in the total population is the same, or slightly higher, as compared with Western market economies (especially because of a noticeably higher percentage of working women in Czechoslovakia, as described in Chapter 1). Practically the entire nonagricultural economically active population consists of wage and salary earners. Contrary to the Western market economies, there is officially no unemployment, and in reality only very small unemployment, in Czechoslovakia; even frictional unemployment hardly occurs, in view of the direction of labor. Working hours seem to be longer in Czechoslovakia: in 1958, for example, hours worked per week in manufacturing compared as follows: Czechoslovakia (author's estimate, including mining and electricity), 48.4;1 West Germany, 45.7; the United Kingdom, 45.4; Austria and France, 45.0; the United States, 39.3.2 A certain amount of time worked in Czechoslovakia was wasted by stoppages caused by break-____________________