ALTHOUGH the materials which have been utilized in the preparation of this book are almost exclusively in the Russian language, the primary and secondary sources are given fully. In the early chapters I have drawn heavily upon the masterly work of the late Professor Kluchevsky, the greater portion of which, since this book was written, has been translated into English by Mr. Hogarth. In some of the later chapters I have also drawn heavily upon the numerous writings of Mr. V. E. Semevsky, and I am besides indebted to this author for generous assistance by correspondence. For other portions of these volumes the authorities are very numerous.
I have to express my grateful acknowledgments to the Imperial Russian Ministry of Finance, to the Departments of Commerce and Industry and of Customs, and to the Imperial Free Economical Society of St. Petersburg, and also to several of the Zemstvo authorities in various parts of European Russia for a large number of statistical books and papers. I am indebted to the University of Columbia College, New York, for the loan of many volumes from its valuable collection of materials for the study of the Russian Revolution; to Professor V. V. Svyatlovsky of St. Petersburg, to whose suggestion and encouragement the present volumes are due, for never-failing kindness in procuring material and for replying to inquiries; to Professor Kaufman of the University of St. Petersburg, to Professor Odarchenko of the University of Warsaw, to Professor Den of St. Petersburg, to Mr. V. E. Varzar of St. Petersburg, Mr. A. Konshin of Serpukhov, Mr. A. F. Gryaznov of Yaroslav, Mr. Glyebov of Chernigov, and Mr. Dunayev of Moscow, for numerous books and papers. I am very specially indebted for self-sacrificing and most skilful assistance, extending over several years, in translation and investigation