AS World War II drew to a close, forces of political change appeared in Central America. The four major components of the region's political structure were affected differently by these pressures in each country. U. S. officials throughout Central America and in the State Department recognized that the elite and the military, which had traditionally played a major role in the political dynamics, were being challenged by the emerging middle sector, which was demanding constitutional government, and the inarticulate masses, which sought economic and social improvements.
Throughout Central America the local elites were dominated by the landowners and the growing commercial sector. Until the 1930s, the elites played a major political role in all five nations as they fought to preserve their privileged status. During the 1930s, they lost their political dominance in four nations, according to U.S. diplomats. These groups remained outside the inner circles of Tiburcio Carias in Honduras, Jorge Ubico in Guatemala, Maximiliano Hernández Martínez in El Salvador, and Anastasio Somoza in Nicaragua. So long as their wealth and social position were not threatened, the elites were satisfied. Under such