GERMAN ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
THE first native architecture of Germany, as of other European countries, was based upon Roman tradition. But the portion of modern Germany which was occupied and civilized by the Romans was comparatively small, and was limited to the south-western corner of the present Republic. The Rhine formed the real frontier between the Roman Empire and the barbarians, though east of the Rhine lay the Agri Decumates ( Tithe Lands), conquered in A.D. 83, and comprising the modern provinces of Württemberg, Baden, and northern Bavaria. This territory was separated from the wild German tribes by a Roman wall of great length, extending from the Rhine to the Danube. Hence the chief relics of Roman building are found in the towns on the west or left bank of the Rhine, including Cologne (Colonia Agrippinensis), Mainz (Mogontiacum), and especially Trier or Treves (Augusta Trevirorum). Bonn (Bonna) and Augsburg (Augusta Vindelicorum) retain their Latin names in a modified form, and in Cologne the familiar quadrangular plan of the Roman city may still be traced, with fragments of the fortifications. At Mainz and Cologne there were bridges and bridge-heads. Most of the old cities on the Rhine contain collections of Roman relics in their museums.
But it is at Treves that the most important remains of Roman architecture exist, for this was the chief town of Roman Germany, and during the fourth century it was frequently an imperial residence. In Treves are ruins of an important palace (illustrated by Dehio and Bezold, see Bibliography) and a large Basilica, probably built by Constantine in the fourth century and converted into a Protestant church about eighty years ago. This basilica consists of a plain rectangular hall of great size, with a semicircular apse at the north end raised above the general floor-level. The massive walls are of concrete faced with brick and are pierced with two tiers of large windows. The lofty roof is of timber and has the enormous span of over ninety feet. Beneath the floor was a heating system with a hypocaust.
Treves also possesses an amphitheatre, capable of accommodating 7000 or 8000 spectators, built on the slope of a vineyard-clad hill; the remains