attributes of masculinity, and these efforts have distorted our understanding of
both the artists and their art. From the late nineteenth century on a variety of
competing interests and modes of interpretation have in fact been brought to
bear upon the the reception and interpretation of Impressionism. But the one
consistent point of reference, as we have seen, has been the perception and evaluation of the movement in terms of the socially constructed attributes of gender.
Roger Fry, Characteristics of French Art ( London: Chatto and Windus, 1932), p. 127.
Kermit S. Champa, Studies in Early Impressionism ( New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1973), pp. xiv and xvii.
Meyer Schapiro, "The Nature of Abstract Art", Marxist Quarterly vol. I, no. 1 (January-March 1937), p. 83. Reprinted in Meyer Schapiro, Modern Art, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Selected Papers ( New York: George Braziller, 1978), pp. 185-211; this quote, p. 192.
See especially, Timothy J. Clark, The Painting of Modern Life, Paris in
the Art of Manet and His Followers ( New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985); Robert Herbert, Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society ( New
Haven: Yale University Press, 1988); Paul Hayes Tucker, Monet at Argenteuil ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982); and Tucker, Monet in
the '90s: The Series Paintings ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990);
also the essays by Richard Brettell,
Françoise Heilbrun in A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the
French Landscape ( Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984).
Schaefer, "The French Landscape Sensibility", in A Day in the Country,
Walter J. Friedlaender, David to Delacroix, trans.
( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952; First German edn., 1930),
Carol Duncan has discussed the importance of the Romantic impulse
for later nineteenth-century art in terms of the influence of the Romantic traditions of "fantasy painting" and "la vie moderne" on the figure paintings of artists like Manet, Degas, Renoir, and Morisot. On this and on
the relationship between Rococo and Romantic art, see Carol Duncan, The Pursuit of Pleasure: The Rococo Revival in French Romantic Art ( New
York: Garland Publishing, 1976), especially pp. 109-115.
James Johnson Sweeney, Plastic Redirections, in Twentieth-Century
Painting ( Chicago, 1934), p. 6; cited by George Heard Hamilton, Claude
Monet's Paintings of Rouen Cathedral, Charlton Lectures on Art ( Newcastle
upon Tyne, England: University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1959), pp. 6-7.
Clement Greenberg, "The Later Monet", Art News, November 1956.
Reprinted in Greenberg, Art and Culture ( Boston: Beacon Press, 1961),
pp. 42 and 44.
Hamilton, Claude Monet's Paintings of Rouen Cathedral, p. 4.
15. Ibid., p. 14
. In later publications, Hamilton continued to define Impressionism in these terms: see his 19th and 20th Century Art
( New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1970), p. 100
See Joel Isaacson, Claude Monet: Observation and Reflection ( Oxford:
Phaidon Press, 1978); also, Isaacson, The Crisis of Impressionism 1878-
1882 ( Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Museum of Art, 1980).
Richard Shiff, "The End of Impressionism: A Study in Theories of
Artistic Expression", The Art Quarterly vol. I, no. 4 (Autumn 1978), pp. 338-378.
Shiff, "The End of Impressionism", in The New Painting: Impressionism 1874-1886 ( San Francisco: The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1986), p. 87, n. 2.
See in particular John House, Claude Monet: His Aims and Methods
c.1877-1895, doctoral dissertation, Courtauld Institute, London, 1976; Grace Seiberling, Monet's Series, doctoral dissertation, Yale University, 1976 ( New York: Garland Publishers, 1981); Isaacson, Claude Monet; Robert Herbert, "Method and Meaning in Monet", Art in America vol. 67,
no. 5 ( September 1979), pp. 90-98; and John House, Monet: Nature into
Art ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986).
Friedlaender, David to Delacroix, pp. 1-11.
Charles Blanc, Grammaire des arts du dessin ( Paris, 1867), p. 22.
See also, John Gage, "Color in Western Art: An Issue?" The Art Bulletin
vol. 72, no. 4 ( December 1990), pp. 518-541.
See in particular, Michel Foucault, "What Is an Author?"( 1969), in Foucault's Language, Counter-Memory, Practise: Selected Essays and Interviews,
ed. and trans.
Donald F. Bouchard ( Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977); and Roland Barthes, S/Z ( New York: Hill and Wang, 1974).
Diego Martelli, "Gil Impressionisti" (lecture of 1879; first published
in Pisa in 1880), in Scritti d'arte di Diego Martelli, ed.
( Florence: Sansoni, 1952), p. 106. On the names applied to and preferred by the "Impressionists," see Stephen F. Eisenman, "The Intransigent Artist or How the Impressionists Got Their Name", in The New
Painting: Impressionism 1874-1886, pp. 51-59.
Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962).
See Linda Nochlin, "Courbet's Real Allegory: Rereading The
Painter's Studio", in "Courbet Reconsidered (Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Brooklyn
Museum, 1988), pp. 17-41; Michael Fried, "Courbet's 'Femininity,'" in Courbet Reconsidered, pp. 43-53; and Fried, Courbet's Realism ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).
Théodore Duret, Les Peintres impressionnistes ( Paris: Librairie Parisienne, 1878), p. 12. [Eng. edn., Manet and the French Impressionists, trans. J. E. Crawford Flitch ( Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1910)].
Phoebe Pool, Impressionism ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 30-31.
On this phenomenon, Basil Taylor has written that "Constable's connections with French nineteenth-century art have been wishfully exaggerated by writers seeking to prove the historical influence of English
painting . . ." and that "the idea that Constable himself was an Impressionist has helped to misdirect the understanding of his method," in Constable
, Paintings, Drawings and Watercolours ( Oxford: Phaidon Press, 1973), pp. 46-47. Nevertheless, as recently as 1966, John Basket wrote
of Constable that "he foreshadowed the Impressionists in their scientific
attempts to break up light into component parts," in Constable Oil
Sketches ( New York: Watson-Guptill, 1966), p. 11. Similar ideas have
misinformed the popular literature on Turner as well. See for example
the comments in D. M. Robb and
J. J. Garrison, Art in the Western World,
rev. edn. ( New York: Harper and Row, 1942 and 1953), pp. 777-778.
Théophile Gautier, Histoire du romanticisme, suivie de notices romantiques
et d'une étude sur la poésie française 1830-1868 (Paris: G. Charpentier Editeur, 1877), p. 294; as cited and trans. by Eugenia Parry Janis, in
Eugenia Parry Janis, The Art of French Calotype ( Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983), pp. 106 and 125, n. 226. In her
writing on nineteenth-century French photography Janis is exceptional
among present-day art historians for the extent to which she stresses
aesthetic continuity in the nineteenth-century French tradition. This ap-