ADLER, JUNG AND "TYPE" PSYCHOLOGY
IN 1912, some ten years after the appearance of psycho- analysis as a school, two leading members of this school, Alfred Adler and C. G. Jung, broke away from Freud, subsequently to found schools of their own. At first the difference seemed mainly one of the relative degree of emphasis placed on various points of psycho-analytic doctrine, but before long it became apparent that the divergence of opinion was really one that affected fundamental matters, and was too great to permit of common work together or the use of a common name. Adler's doctrine then came to be called Individual Psychology, Jung's Analytical Psychology (though these terms have at times held other meanings). Both differ from Freud in attributing less importance to sexual factors, but apart from this, the two new schools diverge as widely from each other as they do from the parent school of psycho- analysis itself.
The fundamenal feature of Adler's doctrine is an insistence on the desires that are connected with the assertion of the individual self and of its superiority over other selves--desires which themselves arise largely from a fear of inferiority. In his early life each individual is inevitably impressed with his weakness when confronted with the powers surrounding him. Human life, in fact, is devoted to the struggle for superiority as a compensation for this sense of insufficiency; the "will to power" is the essential human urge. Indeed, Adler's psychology corresponds closely in many ways to the philosophy of Nietzsche. Since, in the human race, the