THE DISTRIBUTION OF WAGES WITHIN INDUSTRY
The hand trades have practically disappeared from modern industry, so that craftsmanship, in its original meaning, is a thing of the past. A man no longer makes a shoe, a nail, or an overcoat; rather he co-operates with a hundred or a thousand other persons, each of whom, like himself, has some small and apparently meaningless operation to perform. These specialized occupations, however, are anything but meaningless, for organized and directed by a captain of industry, they create a completed product.
This intense specialization, which has been developed in recent years, has divided labor horizontally into groups, -- consisting, broadly, of unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled laborers. This division is comparatively recent because under a