THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS,
10 ST. JAMES SQUARE
LONDON S. W. I.
I should be quite glad to see Chapter 8 of Civilization On Trialre-
published although, alternatively, you might care to republish the
chapter on history which I contributed to The Legacy of Greece, an
Oxford book. This second suggestion is not so topical as the other,
but it is a more serious piece of work which contains more of my
ARNOLD J. TOYNBEE
OUR PRESENT WESTERN OUTLOOK on history is an extraordinarily contradictory one. While our historical horizon has been expanding vastly in both the space dimension and the time dimension, our historical vision--what we actually do see, in contrast to what we now could see if we chose--has been contracting rapidly to the narrow field of what a horse sees between its blinkers or what a U-boat commander sees through his periscope.
This is certainly extraordinary; yet it is only one of a number of contradictions of this kind that seem to be characteristic of the times in which we are living. There are other examples that probably loom larger in the minds of most of us. For instance, our world has risen to an unprecedented degree of humanitarian feeling. There is now a recognition of the human rights of people of all classes, nations, and races; yet at the same time we have sunk to perhaps unheard-of depths of class warfare, nationalism, and racialism. These bad passions find vent in cold-blooded, scientifically planned cruelties; and the two incompatible states of mind and standards of conduct are to be seen to-day, side by side, not merely in the same