terest view of citizens. Some of these conceptions rest content with a stripped-down conception of democratic citizenship and a very partial realization of the democratic ideals. Others attempt partial reinterpretations of the ideals. I will show that all of these attempts fail to answer in a satisfactory way the questions posed in the previous paragraph. They are self-defeating theories, or so I shall argue. I will defend a conception of citizenship in Chapter 5 that reconciles the conditions of the modern state with full-blooded versions of the democratic ideals. I reject the self-interest axiom and elaborate a conception of the object of concern for democratic citizens, as well as standards for assessing citizen understanding of these objects. The conception of citizenship that I defend will then be used to elaborate principles for the evaluation of particular democratic institutions of representation and deliberation in Part Three.