Principles of democracy require, in addition to general standards of evaluation of political institutions, an account of citizenship. We have seen that the Downsian view of citizens poses a deep challenge to the democratic ideals defended in Chapter 2. Indeed, the very idea of egalitarian democracy appears incoherent in the modern state. Thus, a theory of democratic ideals requires a companion conception of democratic citizenship.
A theory of democratic citizenship is a theory about the rights and duties citizens possess in their joint exercise of authority over the society. It is only one part of the total theory of citizenship, which also includes the rights and duties of citizens in their capacities as subjects of the law. There are four main elements of a conception of democratic citizenship. First, the basic normative principles of democracy are what give normative force to any conception of citizenship founded on them. The principles defended in Chapter 2 require that all the citizens be sovereign over the society they live in to the extent that their interests are deeply interdependent. A collective decision-making procedure is necessary to advance the interests citizens have in the collective properties of society. Citi-