out primarily by the system of political parties and interest groups. Third, political institutions must ensure some kind of adequate monitoring of public officials in charge of negotiating and implementing the aims of citizens.
The second step is to show how these functions can be carried out by political institutions in a manner that is consistent with the ideals of political equality and democratic deliberation. I will argue in the next chapter that parties in a legislative assembly have the functions of delegates to citizens with regard to the aims of society and trustee to citizens with regard to the means for achieving these aims and the compromises necessary to resolve disagreements over the aims. I will argue that a system of party list proportional representation is the proper institutional mechanism for ensuring that this function is carried out in an egalitarian way. Such a system also helps with the agency problem. In Chapter 7, I argue that the function of providing a context of deliberation for citizens ought to be primarily carried out by a system of informal associations in the society: political parties and interest groups. I will also argue that this is the primary function of these groups in a society that realizes the democratic ideals. And I will argue that despite the division of labor in the formulation of aims, citizens are the basic choosers of aims. In Chapter 8, I will argue that such a system can go a long way towards resolving the agency problem I have described. I will then describe principles for defining an egalitarian deliberative process and discuss the institutions for satisfying those principles.