The Rule of the Many: Fundamental Issues in Democratic Theory

By Thomas Christiano | Go to book overview

only be brought about by a process of deliberation in the society that will determine the basic aims. Chapters 7 and 8 will deal with this process.


Notes
1.
Thomas Hobbes had a formalist view of responsibility. He thought that the fact that the members of a commonwealth have authorized the sovereign implies that the sovereign is responsible to the members. But the sovereign has no duties to the members in Hobbes's account. See Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, ed. C. B. MacPherson (Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Press, 1968 [ 1651]), pp. 228-236. See also Hanna Pitkin, The Concept of Representation ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967), pp. 15-59, for a discussion of a number of formalistic conceptions of representation.
2.
John Plamenatz, Democracy and Illusion ( London: Longman, 1973), pp. 184-185.
3.
Plamenatz, Democracy and Illusion, pp. 186-187.
4.
Plamenatz, Democracy and Illusion, p. 190.
5.
See Plato, The Republic, 2nd edition revised, ed. Desmond Lee (Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Press, 1987), pp. 177-187. Within democratic theory, C. B. MacPherson has articulated a fairly extreme version of substantive political responsibility of rulers to citizens. See his Real World of Democracy (Montreal: CBC Enterprises, 1965).
6.
See American Political Science Association, Towards a More Responsible Two Party System ( New York: Rinehart & Co., 1950).
7.
See Edmund Burke, "Speech to the Electors of Bristol", in Burke's Politics, ed. Ross J. S. Hoffman and Paul Levack ( New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1949).
8.
See Cass Sunstein, "Interest Groups in American Public Law", Stanford Law Review 38, no. 29 ( November 1985): pp. 29-87, p. 46. See also Charles Beitz, Political Equality (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989), p. 205. This conception of the task of the legislative assembly is attributed by Sunstein to James Madison, but its clearest exponent in the eighteenth century is Edmund Burke in his "Speech to the Electors of Bristol," in which he is very clear on the idea that deliberative assemblies are opposed to democratic equality.
9.
See Hannah Pitkin, The Concept of Representation ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967), chapter 4, for this view, which she calls "descriptive representation."
10.
See Bernard Grofman and Chandler Davidson, eds., Controversies in Minority Voting ( Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1992).

-240-

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The Rule of the Many: Fundamental Issues in Democratic Theory
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction 1
  • Notes 11
  • Part One Foundations of Democracy 13
  • Chapter One - Self-Government 15
  • Chapter Two - Equality 47
  • Notes 98
  • Part Two Democracy and the Problem of the Modern State 103
  • Chapter Three - the Challenge of the Modern State to the Democratic Ideals 104
  • Notes 128
  • Chapter Four - the Economic Conception of Citizenship 131
  • Notes 159
  • Chapter Five - a Normative Conception of Citizenship 165
  • Notes 201
  • Part Three Principles and Problems of Democratic Institutions 205
  • Chapter Six - Equality and Legislative Representation 206
  • Notes 240
  • Chapter Seven - Interest Groups and Political Parties as Institutions of Deliberation 243
  • Notes 262
  • Chapter Eight Equality in the Process of Social Deliberation 265
  • Notes 295
  • Selected Bibliography 299
  • About the Book and Author 305
  • Index 307
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