that the youngsters troubles may have a moral dimension. They see his case as a technical problem, and they take it to a technical expert. True, these experts have developed some rather remarkable techniques, by which they often enough succeed in effectively checking all sorts of personal tendencies that, if left untreated, would make the individual miserable and keep him in trouble with society. What is puzzling, however, and deserves our attention, is that so few people seem to realize the very simple and plain fact, namely, that human problems are not limited to the question of the soundness of emotional tendencies. Few people stop to think that beyond the problem of diseased emotions, twisted passions, destructive compulsions, and so on, there awaits the real problem of the use and abuse of healthy tendencies and sound emotions, which is a problem for everyone, those in need of psychological help not excluded. People seem unwilling to see any problems with the use, say, of a strong will, good memory, high intelligence, talent for leadership, and so on. Now, such an attitude may well be precisely what is required for "psycho-technology" to work. But for me the spread of such moral insensitivity represents one of the most serious problems of our time.
There being no agreed-upon definition of virtue, we have decided to rely for the time being on the common understanding that virtue has something to do with human dependability. The difficulties encountered today in trying to explain the meaning of virtue, however, include also some more or less conscious attempts to deny any need for it by offering various substitutes alleged to work much better. I have considered three of these, natural spontaneity, social engineering, and psycho-technology, and I have not tried to conceal my opinion that none of them, nor all of them together, would solve our problems. But that does not mean that I do not recognize how these ideas contribute to our understanding of the human condition.
Take, for instance, the Romantic invocation of native spontaneity. While its extreme advocacy may have caused some harm, both intellectual and moral, the notion itself is by no means entirely illusory. Especially in education or, better still, in the up-bringing of young