the proofs arrived at through his personal, independent research (ijtihād),
rather than allowing his respect for the seniority of the Salaf to stand in the
The above Shafi'i Traditionalists, Dhahabi and Ibn Kathir, and the Hanbali Ibn Rajab, were disciples of Ibn Taimiya, and held him in the highest regard. They all shared with him his belief that Ibn 'Aqil was influenced
by Mu'tazilism, especially as regards the metaphorical interpretation of the
divine attributes. But Ibn Taimiya, who excels them all in Islamic religious
history and in his knowledge of Ibn 'Aqil's doctrines, revised his opinion of Ibn 'Aqil, believing him to have ended by adhering to pure Sunni orthodoxy.
Notes to Part One
Muntaẓam, VIII, 275-6; Mir'āt, fols.139a-139b; Dhail, I, 175-6; Taḥrīm, #7, #8,
Abu 'l-Qasim ' Abd Allah Ibn Ridwan died in 474/1081; see Muntaẓam, VIII, 333.
Cited freqently in Diary; see index.
Abu Muhammad, elder son of Abu Mansur b. Yusuf; for both father and son,
see Diary, index.
Abu 'Abd Allah b. Jarada; see Diary, index.
Abu 'l-Hasan, younger son of Abu Mansur b. Yusuf.
On the transformation of the law madhhab into a legal guild, see below, Part
Two, Chapter I.
Passion, II, 497, citing
Dhahabi, Tārīkh, sub anno591; A'lām, IX, 60, apud I'lām of Ibn Qadi Shuhba citing Hibat Refutation of the Nuṣra.
Dhail(F), I, 106; see also Passion, II, 184.
See Muntaẓam, VII, 161; Kāmil, sub anno422, biographical notice, where Kitāb
'ala madhhab as-sunna. On Ibn Hajib an-Nu'man, see TB, XII, 31; Muntaẓam, VIII, 51-2.
TB, IV, 37, where the title of al-Qadir's book is given as Kitāb fī 'l-Uṣ ū l; Kāmil, sub
anno, 422, same title; but Munta᪓am, VII, 161, has "'Kitāb fīhī 'l-Uṣ ū l'", a book
containing the basic articles of Traditionalist faith, i.e. among other things.
Al-Qa'im's publication of the Qadiri Creed is stated to have been in the year 432, when the religious intellectuals, headed by the ascetic, Abu 'l-Hasan al-
Qazwini, appended their signatures to the Creed; see THY, II, 210 (lines 14-
16). For the Arabic text of this Creed, see Muntaẓam, VIII, 109-111; German
translation by A. Mez, in Renaissance, 198-201; English translation by S. Khuda
Bukhsh, in Renaissance, 206-9; French translation by G. Makdisi, in Ibn 'Aqīl, 303-8, and analysis, 308-10.
On the Miḥna, see the article in EI2, s.v. (by M. Hinds), and the bibliography
cited; for a recent study on Ma'mun Miḥna, see Ma'm ū n.