H. R. House Bill.
habeas corpus. A writ or order of a court bringing an accused person before it to inquire whether he is being lawfully detained.
Hagana. A Jewish resistance movement in Palestine, originally organized during the 1920 and 1921 troubles with the Arabs as the National Defense Organization. In recent years its strength has been directed toward the Zionist objectives of an independent Jewish Palestine state. It numbers several tens of thousands, with subdivisions according to degrees of armed activity.
Hague Conventions. A series of treaties concluded at the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907, regarding the laws of land warfare, a number of problems in naval warfare, neutrality and the use of force in the collection of contract debts. They are usually referred to by number and date, as the fourth Hague Convention of 1907.
Hague Peace Conferences. Two international conferences which met at The Hague, the Netherlands, in 1899 and 1907. At the first was established the Permanent Court of Arbitration; at both were signed a number of agreements regarding warfare known as the Hague Conventions.
Hague Tribunal. See PERMANENT COURT OF ARBITRATION; PERMANENT COURT OF INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE.
Half-breed. The liberal wing of the Republican party during the administrations of Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur ( 1877-85). See STALWART.
Hall of Mirrors. The great mirrorlined hall in the palace of Versailles where the German empire was established after the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 and where the Treaty of Versailles was signed June 28, 1919.
hammer and sickle. The insignia of the Communist Party, and on the flag of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
hands-off policy. A policy of non-interference in a particular matter.
Hansard. Nickname of the Parliamentary Debates, the record of the debates in the British parliament. The name is that of the original publisher of the Debates, Luke Hansard ( 1752- 1828).
Hapsburg, house of (also Habsburg). A ruling dynasty of Europe. Their power centered first in Austria, until Rudolph I was elected German king in 1273, founding the family's greatness. From 1483 until the empire's dissolution in 1806, the Hapsburgs were also Holy Roman emperors. Maximilian I ( 1459-1519) added Burgundy and The Netherlands, and Philip I ( 1478- 1506) became king of Spain. Philip's son, Charles V ( 1519-1558) united the Hapsburg lands into one of the greatest empires in history, including most of Central Europe and Italy, and Spain and her colonies. In 1556 his dominions were divided, the Austrian