and in the World Court; opposition to the repeal of the Neutrality Laws, to Lend-Lease, to the UN and the 1946 loan to Britain were all related to isolationist beliefs. The closer economic and political contacts of the world and the occurrence of two global wars have rendered isolationism a weak basis for national policy. See IMPERIALISM, INTERNATIONALISM, LEAGUE OF NATIONS, WORLD COURT, UNITED NATIONS, NEUTRALITY, NON- INTERVENTION.
isolationist. An advocate or believer in isolationism. See ISOLATIONISM.
issue. A question of public policy in which there are two or more alternatives upon which members of a legislative body may vote, or upon which the public may express its choice, either directly, as in a referendum, or indirectly, by electing representative officials pledged to carry out a certain alternative.
item veto. The power of an executive official to veto parts or items of bills without vetoing the whole bill. This power is provided the governors of several states, but it has not been given the president of the United States.
ius sanguinis. See JUS SANGUINIS.
ius soli. See JUS SOLI.
I.W.W. See INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF WORLD.
Izvestia. Official newspaper of the government of the USSR, published in Moscow.
jackpot. American slang expression for a fund collected during the early years of the century in Illinois from parties interested in the passage or defeat of certain legislation and at the end of the session distributed among the members of the legislature who "went along" and voted on these measures as directed.
Jacksonian democracy. Democratic principles as advocated by President Andrew Jackson ( 1767-1845). Jackson opposed the aristocratic principle of government and came out vigorously for popular sovereignty. He believed that the common people should govern themselves, to the greatest extent possible, as by holding public office, even though this might result in an inefficient administration. He expanded manhood suffrage and abolished the congressional caucus system which in the absence of national conventions carried out the nomination of candidates. Jacksonian democracy favored the simple people, the "backwoodsmen," the West against the eastern city population. It opposed bankers and capitalists in a rather emotional way. It tried to unite mechanics and frontiersmen into one strong party. Its opponents often pointed out that Jacksonian democracy led to a somewhat emotional and not always reasoned system of government, could be easily