mace. A heavy, ornamented staff used by various officials as a symbol of authority. The two best known are: the wooden mace covered with gold leaf and topped by a gold crown which symbolizes the authority of the British king and rests on the Treasury bench in the House of Commons during each session; the simpler mace, topped by an eagle, which stands beside the desk of the speaker of the American House of Representatives.
Macedonia. An area lying about the port of Salonica, Greece, at the northwest corner of the Aegean Sea. Its boundaries have changed throughout history, but many of its inhabitants have been striving for independence which the area has not had in modern times. For centuries it was part of the Turkish empire, but after World War I it was divided between Greece and Yugoslavia, with a small part going to Bulgaria.
Machiavellian diplomacy. Diplomacy using unscrupulous means to attain its ends. Named for Niccolo Machiavelli ( 1469-1537) whose book, The Prince, cites many examples of the successful use of such methods. machine. A term applied to a welldisciplined, usually unscrupulous political organization or part of such an organization. Usually machines are found only in large cities or in states, rarely on a national basis.
Machtstaat (MAHKHT-shtaht). Literally a power-state. A German conception of the state as an organization of power, ready to use its power freely, especially military, to achieve its aggressive ends.
Mackinac Declaration. Statement on foreign policy adopted by the Republican Post-War Advisory Council at Mackinac Island, September 7, 1943. It included: "1. Prosecution of the war by a united nation to conclusive victory over all our enemies . . . 2. Responsible participation by the United States in post-war co-operative organization among sovereign nations to prevent military aggression and to attain permanent peace with organized justice in a free world."
maffia. Italian, or more specifically Sicilian, secret organization which rules its members without regard to local law, especially in regard to the meting out punishments or revenge.
Maginot line (mazh-i-NOH). Series of fortifications built by France along the German frontier. Its extension along the Belgian frontier was not completed before World War II. It was named in honor of André Maginot, several times minister of war and a staunch defense advocate. It proved inadequate as a defense against mechanized warfare.
magistrate. Judge of a minor court, such as a police court. See CHIEF MAGISTRATE.