oath of office. An oath taken by an incoming government official to discharge the duties of his office and to uphold the Federal or State Constitution and the laws.
O. B. E. See ORDER OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE.
obiter dictum. Literally a passing saying or extra statement. A portion of a judicial opinion which does not bear directly upon the issue the judge is called upon to decide. Hence, it is not strictly the law in the sense of the main decision, but it indicates the thinking of the judge and serves as something of a clue to possible future decisions.
obligatory arbitration. See COMPULSORY ARBITRATION.
obstructionist. One who impedes legislation, particularly progressive legislation, by utilizing the technical rules of a legislative body to delay action.
occupation. The act by which a state takes and keeps effective possession of territory which belongs to another state. Usually the act is accompanied by the intention to extend its sovereignty over the occupied territory. A military occupation does not presume the intention to extend sovereignty over the occupied territory. See MILITARY OCCUPATION.
occupational representation. Representation in a legislative body, not on a geographical district basis but on that of business occupations or vocations. This suggestion has been raised. on the theory that with the increasing diversity of man's economic activities an individual's interests would be better represented by a person in the same vocation or occupation than by one who merely lives in the same vicinity; also that those in the same occupation throughout a country have more in common than those who live in the same area. An attempt to set up this kind of representation was made in fascist Italy.
O. C. D. See OFFICE OF CIVILIAN DEFENSE.
ochlocracy. Rule by the multitude or the mob.
October Revolution. The Russian Bolshevik revolution of 1917. On November 6 the Bolshevik-lead soldiers, sailors and workers of Petrograd-- then the capital of Russia and now called Leningrad--captured the main government buildings and overthrew the Provisional Government of Alexander Kerensky, who escaped and went into exile. A chief cause of the uprising was the popular fear that the reactionary army leaders were plotting to take over the government. The next day the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, minus the moderate socialist members, voted to approve of the Revolution, and the Bolsheviks have ruled Russia ever since. According to the Russian calendar the dates