Ual Ual Dispute. A dispute between Italy and Ethiopia resulting from an armed clash by patrols at Ual Ual, near the debated southern Ethiopian- Italian Somaliland frontier December 5, 1934. In spite of Italian objections the matter was turned over to arbitrators, while Mussolini prepared for invasion. The arbitrators unanimously found on September 3, 1935, that blame could be laid on neither side, as each group thought it was on its own territory. This nullified Mussolini's claims, but he invaded anyway a month later.
U.K. See UNITED KINGDOM.
ultimate destination. Term applied to the destination of goods being shipped to a belligerent state, even though they are shipped by way of a neutral state or port. Such goods can be seized by another belligerent power before reaching their first, or neutral, destination if they have the other characteristics of contraband. See CONTINUOUS VOYAGE; CONTRABAND.
ultimatum. The last offer or demand made by a state in an international controversy. If not met, the next step usually has been the beginning of hostilities.
ultra vires. Beyond or exceeding the legal power of a person or agency.
Un-American Activities Committee. See DIES COMMITTEE.
unanimity, rule of. The principle that all states must assent to an international agreement before they are bound by it. This principle flows from the corollary of sovereignty that a state is bound only by its own consent. It is being limited in many international agreements.
unanimous consent. Agreement with no dissenting voice, which is often required for changing the regular order of business of a parliamentary body.
U.N.C.I.O. See SAN FRANCISCO CON- FERENCE.
Uncle Sam. Popular name for the United States, apparently arising from the initials U. S. It came into use during the War of 1812. The cartoon characterization is of a tall be-whiskered gentleman with high hat, red and white striped trousers, and a blue starred tailcoat.
unconstitutional. Not in accordance with the Constitution. In the United States the powers of government are set forth in federal and state constitutions. If a person believes a law passed exceeds the powers granted the government, he may take the question to the appropriate court. If his contention is upheld, the law is called unconstitutional and becomes unenforceable.
unconditional surrender. A military capitulation in which the terms are entirely at the disposition of the victorious commander, as opposed to