Mystery and Method: The Other in Rahner and Levinas

By Michael Purcell | Go to book overview

ENDNOTES
1
Feron misreads the quote, substituting "la production de la totalité" for "la perduration de la totalité" ( Feron 1992, 166; Cf. Totalité et Infini, p.278) His point, however, is not compromised. One exists in the totality, with a foothold in being, and, without letting go, is able to go beyond being.
2
For a study of the relationship between being and the good in Aquinas, see Frank O'Rourke, Pseudo-Dionysius and the Metaphysics of Aquinas, ( Leiden, New York, Köln: E J Brill, 1992), passim.
3
Levinas rejects Aristotle's principle of analogy but this is a rejection of the analogy of proportionality which, he says, developed from Aristotle to the Middle Ages (see Levinas 1979, 80), and which, under the influence of Cajetan continued as the central understanding of analogy in Aquinas for some four hundred years. W Hill notes, "the prejudice of Cajetan [is] that analogy is ultimately proportionality" ( Hill 1971, 122). However, after De Veritate ( 1256) the analogy of proportionality is abandoned by Aquinas in favour of an analogy of participation. (See Rolnick 1993, 46). Rolnick takes as his guide G Klubertanz' chronological arrangement of Aquinas' teaching on analogy chronologically ( St. Thomas Aquinas on Analogy: A Textual Analysis and Systematic Synthesis, ( Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1960)). De Veritate seems to consider proportionality as the most important form of analogy. God's knowledge and human knowledge are predicated analogously according to an agreement of proportionality (proportionalitatis) (an agreement in the likeness of two proportions, as 6:4 because 6 = 2 × 3 and 4 = 2 × 2) rather than of proportion (proportionis) (2:1). Proportion involves a determinate relation between the terms of the analogy; hence, nothing can be predicated analogously of God and the creature according to the analogy of proportion. Proportionality, however, involves no determinate relation, and so the analogy of proportionality can be used of God and creature (cf. De Ver. II, 11, c).

As the infinite is to the infinite, so the finite is... to the finite. In this way there is a likeness between the creatures and God, because as He is related to the things which belong to Him, so the creature is related to what is proper to it ( De Ver. XXIII, 7 ad 9).

The problem with the analogy of proportionality, however, is that it relates God and the creature in a trivial and extrinsic manner. According to Klubertanz' analysis, therefore, Aquinas drops proportionality completely after De Veritate ( 1256), although it persists in Cajetan's interpretation for a further 400 years. According to Rolnick, Klubertanz shows that Aquinas came to understand that "analogy must express more than extrinsic attributions (as proportionality does) but must actually express some degree of intrinsic commonality (as the analogy based on participation does)" (ibid., p.46). Chronological analysis shows that Aquinas turns to analogy based on participation, noting its incidence some 126 times in the entire span of

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Mystery and Method: The Other in Rahner and Levinas
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents iii
  • Foreword vii
  • Introduction xii
  • Endnotes xxxiii
  • 1. Method 1
  • 1.7 Summary 56
  • Endnotes 59
  • 2 Philosophical Origins 119
  • Endnotes 121
  • 3. Questioning Presence 129
  • 3.5 Summary 166
  • Endnotes 169
  • 4. Subjectivity and Alterity 171
  • 5. Desiring the Other Or, the Prevenience of Grace 223
  • 5-5 Summary 246
  • Endnotes 248
  • 6 the Sacramentality of the Face, Or, Sacramental Signification 251
  • Endnotes 294
  • 7. Being Ethical 297
  • Endnotes 333
  • 8 the Mystery of the Other 335
  • Endnotes 357
  • Bibliography 359
  • Index 383
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