THE chapters that follow were written after visits to Egypt and the Sudan, in which I endeavoured to gain some insight into the political, social, and administrative conditions of those countries. They are intended to convey some account, slight, but I hope faithful, of my impressions of the territory in that stage of transition which ensued after the conclusion of Lord Cromer's great period of reconstruction and financial readjustment-the stage which lay between the reconquest of the Sudan by Lord Kitchener, and his return to Cairo as British Agent and Consul-General. It was thus the Nile lands, in certain of their aspects, presented themselves to an observer, with some knowledge of political and social developments at other epochs, and in other countries of the East and the West.
Most descriptions of Egypt begin with the Nile mouths or the capital, and work upwards towards the tropical provinces. I have preferred to start with the Sudan, which was the part of the area first examined at close quarters, and thence to follow the course of the great river downwards to the Delta and the sea. S. L.