THIS book is based upon a thesis that was accepted by the University of London for the degree of Ph.D. in 1951. It was revised and enlarged as a result of the opportunity given me by the Commonwealth Fund to spend a year in the United States and Canada. I should like to express my thanks to the Commonwealth Fund, to the University of Manchester for granting me leave of absence, and to the officials of the Federal Security Agency in Washington, the Department of National Health and Welfare in Ottawa, and the Council of State Governments in Chicago, who answered my questions with unfailing courtesy.
I should also like to thank Professor W. J. M. Mackenzie, who has read the entire manuscript and has made many valuable suggestions for its improvement, Mr. J. W. Grove and Mr. P. G. Lucas, who have each commented helpfully on one or two chapters, and Professor P. H. Partridge of the Australian National University, who has drawn MY attention to some of the recent developments in Australia. Responsibility for the work and its failings, of course, is mine alone. My thanks are also due to the librarians of the British Library of Political and Economic Science, the American Library in London, and the Offices of the High Commissioners of Canada and Australia. I should like to acknowledge particularly my gratitude to the last mentioned, for it is only because of the helpfulness and efficiency of the Librarian at Australia House that it has been possible to study the affairs of a country which I have never visited.
My greatest debt, however, is to my mother, but for whose sympathetic understanding and constant encouragement the work would never have been completed.
A. H. B.