THE PROBLEMS OUTLINED
THE skeleton model which is to serve as the ground of comparison in this study has a number of characteristics which must now be listed. In the first place, the government of the country must be one which is carried on within the framework of a written constitution, of which all or some clauses can be amended only by a special process prescribed in the constitution and different from the normal process of legislation. Second, there exist in this country one national and several regional governments,1 whose powers are defined by the constitution and are co-ordinate with one another. Both the national and the regional governments, that is, have authority over certain subjects of legislation, which are listed in the constitution, so that each government is independent of the other within its own sphere. Third, there is an independent tribunal to interpret the constitution, adjudicate between the national and regional governments, and declare invalid any legislation which it decides to be unconstitutional. Fourth, the division of powers between the national and regional governments is such that each government has control over certain sources of revenue, so that each may be, in principle if not in practice, financially independent of the other. Fifth, the division of powers is such that control over most of the social services is given, either specifically or as part of the residuary powers, to the regional governments.
It will be noted that this model embodies the federal prin-____________________