Federalism, Finance, and Social Legislation in Canada, Australia, and the United States

By A. H. Birch | Go to book overview

8
SOCIAL LEGISLATION IN AUSTRALIA

I. THE FIRST PERIOD: 1900-12

THE demand for social security developed very much earlier in Australia than in the other two federations, and it is necessary to begin by asking why this was. One answer would be that it followed from the early growth of a nation-wide labour party, closely connected with the trade unions and committed to the provision of social security, but this is another way of describing the situation rather than an explanation. The fundamental reason for the difference, it is suggested, was the absence of an expanding frontier in Australia. There was a great deal of land to the West, but it was nearly all desert, and the periodic gold rushes are not analogous to the steady opening up of the western territories that took place in the United States and Canada. In the North American countries it was mainly this constant expansion, and the individual opportunities afforded by the possibility of migration, which held back both the development of a national party of labour and the growth of a demand for social security. In Australia the limitation of this kind of opportunity led to the development of social and political attitudes very different from those of North America, and in the early years of the century all the political parties favoured the idea of old-age pensions.1

This early Australian consciousness of social security resulted in the inclusion in the Constitution of clauses empowering the Federal Parliament to legislate in respect of old-age and invalid pensions. These powers were used in 1908, when legislation was passed providing for federal schemes of oldage pensions, which came into effect the following year, and of invalid pensions, which came into effect in 1910. This legisla-

____________________
1
For a discussion of the relevance of Frederick Jackson Turner's theories to Australian history, see F. Alexander, Moving Frontiers ( Melbourne, 1947).

-205-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Federalism, Finance, and Social Legislation in Canada, Australia, and the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 314

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.