strengthening of the belief that women's lusts were to be feared as unbridled and demonic. The Reformation, which seemed at first to offer a sexual ethic identical for men and women, and appeared to bestow a new dignity on the married wife, suspected all women, single or married, of being ever ready to surrender themselves to their lust for debauchery.


Notes
1.
Die Chroniken der deutschen Städte, 23 ( Leipzig, 1894), 337.
2.
On closures in other cities, see Iwan Bloch, Die Prostitution, 2 vols. ( Berlin, 1912, 1925), ii. 260-2; and Susan Karrant-Nunn, "'Continuity and Change: Some Effects of the Reformation on the Women of Zwickau'", Sixteenth Century Journal, 12/ 2 ( 1982), 16-42, p. 23.
3.
Steven Ozment, When Fathers Ruled: Family Life in Reformation Europe ( Harvard, 1983), 99.
4.
Stadtarchiv Ulm (hereinafter cited as StAUlm) A 3988 Der frowen wiert ayd (hereafter referred to as 'oath') and see Stadtarchiv Augsburg (hereafter cited as StAA) Ratsbuch no. 277, 'Aidbuch' of the fifteenth century, fo. 18v, frowen wirt aid. I am grateful to Rolf Kiessling for this reference. Augsburg has few records on the brothel before the Reformation, so I have drawn on material relating to brothels in other cities. Surviving ordinances reveal a broadly similar organization. On Augsburg in the late medieval period, See Rolf Kiessling, Bürgerliche Gesellschaft und Kirche in Augsburg im Spätmittelalter ( Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg, 19) ( Augsburg, 1971).
5.
See G. L. Kriegk, Deutsches Bürgerthum im Mittelalter, 2 vols. ( Frankfurt, 1868, 1871) ii. 308; Karl Obser, "'Zur Geschichte des Frauenhauses in Überlingen'", Zeitschrift für Geschichte des Oberrheins, 70 ( 1916), 631-44; Dr von Posern- Klett , "'Frauenhäuser und freie Frauen in Sachsen'", Archiv für die sächsische Geschichte, 12 ( 1874), 63-89, p. 67.
6.
Carl Jäger, Ulms Verfassungs-, bürgerliches und commercielles Leben im Mittelalter ( Heilbronn, 1831), 545; von Posern-Klett, "'Frauenhäuser und freie Frauen'", 80; Max Bauer, Liebesleben in deutscher Vergangenheit ( Berlin, 1924), 139; see also Chroniken der deutschen Städte, 11 ( Leipzig, 1874), 464; and W. Rudeck , Geschichte der öffentlichen Sittliechkeit in Deutschland ( Jena, 1897), 31-3.
7.
Kriegk, Deutches Bürgerthum, ii. 327; Bauer, Liebesleben, 138. On the municipal nature of the brothel see also, for France, Jacques Rossiaud, sect. III of Jacques Le Goff (ed.), La ville médiéval des Carolingiens à la Renaissance ( Histoire de la France urbaine, ii. ed. G. Duby) ( Paris, 1980), 532.
8.
Brothel-keeper's complaint: Staatsarchiv Ludwigsburg, B 207 Bü 68 no. 166. The doctor and the official in charge of beggars gave the women an internal examination ('besechent sy einwertz Jrs leibs') ('which no man has the right to do'). Clean women: StAUlm A 3669 ( Zweites Gsatzbuch) fo. 416 ff., Newe frawen wierts ordnung 1512. I have found no evidence that German prostitutes were organized in guilds, though this claim is even repeated in modern literature: the 'guild of prostitutes' however, is used ironically to refer to the women.

-357-

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