Systems of Forced Labor
The simplest and most primitive system of compulsory labor that developed as the result of the contact of European and non-European peoples was slavery. Slavery developed primarily in response to the demand for cheap labor in a plantation system of agriculture which produced staples for export. When the earlier forms of slavery were abolished partly as the result of the growth of humanitarian sentiment but more fundamentally as the result of economic and political forces, the conscription of native labor in colonial areas provided a substitute for slavery. Even in those areas where a system of recruitment of "free" labor gradually emerged, the element of compulsion has not been absent. And in still other areas the element of compulsion has been disguised under some such arrangement as "quota" assignments of production for native peoples.
According to Nieboer, slavery has developed in those areas with "open resources" which are defined as those