Integrated Residuals Management at the Microlevel: General Considerations
In chapter 2 we presented a schematic diagram of an overall residuals- environmental quality management (REQM) system. This and the next chapter focus on the meaning of integrated residuals management with respect to box 1 of that diagram--the production and consumption activities in the economy--and with respect to the interrelationships among boxes 0, 1, and 2. We do this by analyzing residuals generation and management at the individual activity level, looking at various options for reducing residuals discharges and their costs. Such analyses are essential to analyses of REQM at both micro (regional) and macrolevels. This chapter provides a qualitative description of some of the important factors affecting residuals generation in society and the effects of changing those factors; the next chapter describes quantitative studies of individual activities.
The forms (liquid, solid, gaseous) of residuals generated in individual activities can be changed by modification processes as can, to some degree, the types of residuals (mass versus energy). The amounts and composition of residuals can also be affected by the types of raw materials used; the product mix and product specifications;1 the introduction of materials-____________________