The Lower Delaware Valley Case Study
The residuals management and political modeling work done in the Quality of the Environment program, although productive of a number of results in its conceptual phases, led naturally to an attempt to apply it in a realistic setting. A detailed description of this effort was published in an RFF research paper Environmental Quality Management: An Application to the Lower Delaware Valley, by Walter O. Spofford, Jr., Clifford S. Russell, and Robert A. Kelly. This chapter has been adapted, and in many cases, quoted from that book.1 The case study had several specific objectives. The order in which they are discussed does not imply relative importance.
One objective was to say something about the practical importance of including within a single analytical framework airborne, waterborne, and solid residuals. As we have shown in earlier chapters, the regional residuals management problem cannot, in principle, be solved by considering air or water or solids in isolation because of the links among forms of residuals and discharge media that are implied by the conservation of mass and energy in production, use, and residuals modification processes. There was, however, no hard evidence on the quantitative extent of the linkages and the size of the costs implied by isolated solutions in real situations. The applied model was intended to be a good enough representation of an actual region to yield one piece of defensible evidence, at least on the extent of the linkages.2 This model is referred to here as the Lower Delaware Valley model, or the regional REQM model.
A second objective was to generate information on the cost implications--both total regional costs and distribution of costs--of utilizing____________________