The Federal Republic in Spain: Pi Y Margall and the Federal Republican Movement, 1868-74

By C. A. M. Hennessy | Go to book overview

GLOSSARY
Abajo-arriba. The two words mean 'under and 'above', hence the use of this form to refer to a federation created from below with provinces taking the initiative in declaring a federal republic. The opposite irriba-abajo refers to the creation of a federal republic by a constituent Cortes which itself determines the federal units.
Acta. Certificate of election presented by all deputies before taking their seats in the Cortes. A deputy could either be accepted sin protestas or, if there had been electoral irregularities, con proteṣtas, with a debate to decide the validity of the election.
Alcalde. Mayor. Under the Ley Municipal civil governors were empowered to replace a mayor by a representative of the Government should there be complaints against him. This power was often abused and used as an excuse for government intervention, particularly at election time.
Ateneo. 'Athenacum'--The Ateneo always refers to the Madrid Ateneo, founded in 1835.
Ayuntamiento. Local council, or it may refer to the building in which it meets. Presided over by an alcalde assisted by concejales.
Benévolos. 'Benevolents': those Federals who were prepared to form tactical alliances in the Cortes with monarchist parties, especially the Radicals. Cf. Intransigentes.
Cabotaje. Coasting-trade.
Caciquismo. The domination of a rural area by a cacique who might be either a landowner or a landowner's bailiff, who 'managed' the elections. Particularly prevalent in Andalusia.
Calamares. 'Squids.' The nickname given to Sagasta's followers in 1872, because they stuck to office under all circumstances.
Camarilla. The coterie of private advisers round the monarch--in particular the clerical neo-Catholics in the 1860's.
Cantón. 'Canton.' The Spanish use of the word has no specific juridical meaning. It was used in 1873 to refer to any area which declared its independence of Madrid.
Carabinero. Soldiers used specifically against smugglers; customs and excise police.
Carabinero. The Spanish equivalent of the Italian carbonaro. They flourished as late as the early 1860's.
Caudillismo. From caudillo, a leader; hence rule by a strong man, and particularly by a soldier.

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