The Gulf War and the New World Order: International Relations of the Middle East

By Tareq Y. Ismael; Jacqueline S. Ismael | Go to book overview

22
Global Apartheid?

Race and Religion in the New World Order

Ali A. Mazrui

Now that secular ideological divisions between the East and West have declined in relevance, are we witnessing the re-emergence of primordial allegiances? Are we witnessing new forms of retribalization on the global arena--from Natal in South Africa to Bosnia and Herzegovina, from Los Angeles to Slovakia? In Europe, two levels of retribalization are discernible. In Eastern Europe, microretribalization is particularly strong. Microretribalization is concerned with microethnicity, involving such conflicts as Serbians versus Croats, Russians versus Ukrainians, and Czechs versus Slovaks.

On the other hand, Western Europe shows strides in regional integration despite hiccups as the 1992 referendum in Denmark against the Maastricht Treaty. Regional integration can be macroretribalization if it is race-conscious. Macroretribalization can be the solidarity of white people, an arrogant pan-Europeanism greater in ambition than anything seen since the Holy Roman Empire.

Is the white world closing ranks in Eastern Europe and the West? Will we see a more united, and potentially more prosperous, white world presiding over the fate of a fragmented and persistently indigent black world in the twenty-first century? Put in another way, now that apartheid in South Africa is disintegrating, is there a global apartheid in the process of formation? With the end of the Cold War, is the white world closing ranks at the global level--in spite of current divisions within individual countries such as Yugoslavia? Is the danger particularly acute between black and white people?

In addition to the black-white divide in the world, Muslim countries, in particular, may have reason to worry in the era after the Cold War. Will Islam replace communism as the West's perceived adversary? Did the West exploit the Gulf War of 1991 to put Islam and its holiest places under the umbrella of Pax Americana? It is to these issues that we turn.

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The Gulf War and the New World Order: International Relations of the Middle East
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I - The Gulf War and the International Order 23
  • 1 - Reflections on the Gulf War Experience 25
  • Notes 38
  • 2 - The United Nations in the Gulf War 50
  • 3 - Bush's New World Order 52
  • Notes 73
  • Notes 74
  • 4 - The European Community's Middle Eastern Policy 107
  • 5 - Regional Cooperation and Security in the Middle East the Role of the European Community 116
  • Notes 129
  • 6 - Japan 132
  • References 148
  • Part II - The United States and the New World Order 151
  • 7 - Between Theory and Fact 153
  • Notes 174
  • 8 - The New World Order and the Gulf War 184
  • Notes 217
  • 9 - The Making of the New World Order 240
  • 10 - Defeating the Vietnam Syndrome 242
  • Notes 258
  • Part III - The Gulf War and the Middle East Order 263
  • 11 - Iraq and the New World Order 290
  • 12 - Iran and the New World Order 313
  • 13 - The Gulf War, the Palestinians, and the New World Order 339
  • 14 - Israel and the New World Order 347
  • Notes 363
  • 15 - Jordan and the Gulf War 381
  • 16 - Syria, the Kuwait War, and the New World Order 395
  • 17 - Imagining Egypt in the New Age 399
  • Notes 430
  • 18 - Turkey, the Gulf Crisis, and the New World Order 446
  • Part IV - Political Trends and Cultural Patterns 449
  • 19 - The Middle East in the New World Order 451
  • Acknowledgments 468
  • Acknowledgments 469
  • 20 - Islam, Democracy, and the Arab Future 473
  • Acknowledgments 497
  • Notes 497
  • 21 - Islam at War and Communism in Retreat What is the Connection? 502
  • Acknowledgments 520
  • Notes 520
  • 22 - Global Apartheid? 521
  • Notes 535
  • 23 - Democracy Died at the Gulf 548
  • Contributors 549
  • Index 554
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