I began this book in 1982, and many have helped along the way. Among the people who have read all or parts of the manuscript or who have influenced my thinking about this subject are Thomas Leonard, John Pauly, Bill Solomon, John Stevens, Dave Nord, James Baughman, Carolyn Marvin, Maurine Beasley, Richard John, Rajani Alexander, John Crane, Gary Krug, Bish Sen, and Minnie Sinha. I'm grateful to colleagues, past and present, at the University of Illinois for advice and support, particularly Kevin Bamhurst, Sandra Braman, James Carey, Cliff Christians, Thomas Guback, Lou Liebovich, Howard Maclay, and Ellen Wartella. My arguments on this subject were first presented publicly through the intercession of Chuck Whitney; a subsequent version appeared in the Journal of Communication with the editorial ministrations of Marsha Siefert, who was also instrumental in bringing this project to the attention of Oxford University Press, where it enjoyed the attention of Rachel Toor, David Roll, Ruth Sandweiss, and Betty Seaver. Tasks associated with this project afflicted many graduate students, including Jon Bekken, Britto Berchmanns, Ron Flynn, Carolyn Glassman, Holly Kruse, Bill Mueller, Gilbert Brinkley Rodman, Phil Sellers, and Steve Wiley. Diane Tipps and Anita Specht were indispensable. I can't say how much I owe to Ivy Glennon, though she would never condone the use of an exchange metaphor in such a context.