|1.||the ideas and the impact of the enlightenment;|
|2.||the industrial revolution (with its resulting change of employment patterns and social structures); and|
|3.||traditional, conservative forces and ideas.|
The impact of the French Revolution, the German revolutionary movements early last century and the industrial revolution led to the formation of the early German women's movement. The first women's association, "Alldeutscher Frauenverein," was founded in 1865 by Luise Otto-Peters. It aimed at improving education and employment conditions for women. Very soon two main streams became apparent in the women's movement's fight for equality, a bourgeois line and a proletarian line. The bourgeois line intended changes within the existing structures of society to reduce men's power in state and society and to allow women access to education and professions, but still maintained the notion that the prime role of the married woman was to be wife and mother. The proletariat line regarded women's problems as part of the class struggle against the capitalist economy and claimed for themselves the right to work, since it would mean economic independence. As much as women today they claimed that motherhood was not to exclude employment. The contradictory demands of paid employment and motherhood and therefore all the problems women were faced with had to be overcome, not by the individual woman, but by an overall effort of the whole of society. 1
Of equal importance to the women's movement was the struggle for political rights. It was Clara Zetkin who at the Second Socialist International in 1907 demanded equal franchise for all people, including women. The Weimar Constitution of 1919 guaranteed women equality with respect to civil rights and duties, as well as to marriage and family. Equality as such was not enshrined in the Constitution. The legislature was obliged to implement equality in family law; however, the civil code was never adjusted.
Women's position in society appeared and still does appear to be strongly determined by the prevailing needs of industry and the moral views of society. The industrialization of the nineteenth century changed the employment pattern of women. Industry required cheap labor and so women began to leave the house, their usual domain. At the same time public administration and