The Interest Group Connection: Electioneering, Lobbying, and Policymaking in Washington

By Paul S. Herrnson; Ronald G. Shaiko et al. | Go to book overview

13
Interest Group Interventions in the Administrative Process: Conspirators and Co-Conspirators

William T. Gormley Jr.

THE IMPLEMENTATION of the Clean Air Act of 1990 troubled state governments and private corporations. Corporations objected to a car-pooling requirement that employers in nine smoggy cities take steps to encourage car pooling or the use of mass transit. State governments objected to an automobile emissions testing program in regions with exceptionally dirty air. Following tense conversations with governors and corporate officials, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner announced that participation in the car-pooling initiative would be voluntary and that smaller reductions in automobile emissions would be allowed ( Lee 1996, 1). This episode illustrates how interest groups, including state governments, can influence the outcome of important decisions by federal agencies.

This chapter provides a broad overview of interest group involvement in decisions made by the federal bureaucracy. Students of bureaucratic politics and public administration differ in their assessment of the importance and the propriety of interest group interventions. According to some observers, interest groups are ubiquitous, importunate, and efficacious. According to others, interest groups are eclipsed by other important actors, such as legislators, political executives, and bureaucrats themselves. If interest groups do matter, a key normative concern is whether the constellation of interest groups active in particular proceedings or discussions is representative of the wider society. Another concern is whether interest groups support or undermine rational decision making.

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The Interest Group Connection: Electioneering, Lobbying, and Policymaking in Washington
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents iii
  • Preface vii
  • Comments on the Electoral Connection 80
  • Part III the Congressional Connection 87
  • 6 the Dynamics of Lobbying the Hill 89
  • 7 Grassroots Organizations and Equilibrium Cycles in Group Mobilization and Access 100
  • 10 Interest Groups and the Congressional Budget Process: Lobbying in the Era of Deficit Politics 154
  • Acknowledgments 173
  • Notes 173
  • 11 Tobacco Industry Pacs and the Nation's Health: A Second Opinion 174
  • Comments on the Congressional Connection 196
  • Part IV the Executive Connection 203
  • 12 Lobbying the President and the Bureaucracy 205
  • Notes 213
  • Notes 223
  • 14 Lobbying for the President: Influencing Congress from the White House 224
  • Notes 238
  • Notes 256
  • Comments on the Executive Connection 258
  • Part V the Judicial Connection 265
  • Acknowledgments 287
  • Notes 287
  • 17 Please God, Save This Honorable Court: the Emergence of the Conservative Religious Bar 289
  • Acknowledgment 300
  • Notes 300
  • Notes 302
  • Notes 316
  • Comments on the Judicial Connection 318
  • Part VI Conclusion 325
  • 19 Interest Groups at the Dawn of a New Millennium 327
  • References 337
  • Index 361
  • About the Contributors 374
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