Michael J. McShane and Richard D. Otis Jr.
LOBBYING in Washington in the late 1990s, and lobbying from an executive branch perspective in particular, has become an increasing complex job. Managing congressional affairs from an administration perspective is no easy task either. Nonetheless, some lessons may be equally shared with those who attempt to influence the policymaking process from the position of an organized interest and those who do so from within the White House. It is often the case that the problems encountered by the White House are exactly the problems we in corporate America face. I think the need for discipline is absolutely crucial. To have a totally successful government relations program you need to have the government relations program be part of the policy development process and contribute to developing a legislative agenda. This is absolutely true, but I am amazed how few companies and government agencies, including the White House, operate differently. It is crucial because if you do not have intelligence and guidance from government relations, how can you develop intelligent and thoughtful policy positions and the legislative and executive strategies to achieve them? Without insight and intelligence supplied by government relations, a really successful government relations program is difficult to create and maintain.
For example, Dr. Walker recounted the failure of the Carter energy package earlier in this volume. In the Carter administration, the Carter people (I was in the Carter White House and had worked on putting the Department of Energy together) went up to Capitol Hill to deliver to Con-