Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook

By Agnes N. O'Connell; Nancy Felipe Russo | Go to book overview

CHARLOTTE M. BÜHLER (1893-1974)

Eileen A. Gavin

Charlotte Bühler made ground-breaking contributions to life-span developmental and humanistic psychology. She identified purposeful, uniquely patterned activity in infants, young children, adolescents, and adults and held that viewing the human person as a continually developing totality encourages fruitful exploration. To clarify the developmental process she devised naturalistic techniques that buttressed her motivation-based theory of personality. During the 1960s Bühler collaborated with like-minded psychologists, such as Abraham Maslow, in founding, publicizing, and strengthening the humanistic psychology movement. In her latter years she consolidated humanistic theory with pertinent research findings and clinical observations.


FAMILY BACKGROUND AND EARLY CAREER DEVELOPMENT

Charlotte Malachowski, the first of Walter and Rose Malachowski's two children, was born December 20, 1893, in Berlin, Germany. Her father, a gifted architect, and her mother, an accomplished musician, encouraged her to pursue her intellectual and artistic interests. During early adolescence Malachowski identified with a gifted and inspiring teacher, Hedwig von Probst.

From an early age Charlotte Malachowski demonstrated broad academic interests and a bent for investigating psychological processes. As she wondered about the existence of God and the purpose of human existence ( Bühler, October 11, 1967), she began to explore human thought processes in the hope of casting light on such ultimate issues ( Schenk-Danzinger, 1974, p. 205). As a high school student she conducted an original study of human thought processes that presaged her doctoral research.

University studies from 1913 to 1918 at Freiburg, Kiel, Berlin, and Munich put her in touch with excellent teachers. As early as 1913 she longed to meet Karl Bühler, whose published work on human thought seemed to parallel her own. Because he served as an army medical doctor at the beginning of World

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Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Copyright Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Part I Overview 1
  • Historical and Contemporary Perspectives 3
  • Part II the Women and Their Contributions 11
  • Anne Anastasi (1908- ) 13
  • Nancy Bayley (1899- ) 23
  • Sandra Lipsitz Bem (1944- ) 30
  • Jeanne Humphrey Block (1923-1981) 40
  • Charlotte M. BÜhler (1893-1974) 49
  • Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) 57
  • Mamie Phipps Clark (1917-1983) 66
  • Florence L. Denmark (1931- ) 75
  • Else Frenkel-Brunswik (1908-1958) 88
  • Anna Freud (1895-1982) 96
  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (1910- ) 104
  • Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972) 117
  • Florence Laura Goodenough (1886-1959) 125
  • Jacqueline Jarrett Goodnow (1924- ) 134
  • Edna Heidbreder (1890-1985) 143
  • Ravenna Helson (1925- ) 151
  • Mary Henle (1913- ) 161
  • Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886-1939) 173
  • Karen Horney (1885-1952) 184
  • BÄrbel Inhelder (1913- ) 197
  • Marie Jahoda (1907- ) 207
  • Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) 220
  • Eleanor Emmons Maccoby (1917- ) 230
  • Clara Mayo (1931-1981) 238
  • Maria Montessori (1870-1952) 246
  • Bernice L. Neugarten (1916- ) 256
  • Carolyn Robertson Payton (1925- ) 266
  • Pauline (pat) Snedden Sears (1908- ) 275
  • Virginia Staudt Sexton (1916- ) 285
  • Carolyn Wood Sherif (1922-1982) 297
  • Janet Taylor Spence (1923- ) 307
  • Bonnie Ruth Strickland (1936- ) 317
  • Thelma Gwinn Thurstone (1897- ) 327
  • Leona E. Tyler (1906- ) 335
  • Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) 342
  • Beth Lucy Wellman (1895-1952) 350
  • Part III Awards and Recognition 359
  • Selected Award-Winning Contributions 361
  • Part IV Bibliographic Resources 379
  • Women in Psychology: Bibliographic Resources 381
  • Part V Appendices 399
  • Appendix A - A Chronology of Birth Years 401
  • Appendix B - Places of Birth 403
  • Appendix C - Major Fields 405
  • Index 409
  • About the Contributors 435
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