Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook

By Agnes N. O'Connell; Nancy Felipe Russo | Go to book overview

MAMIE PHIPPS CLARK (1917-1983)

Robert V. Guthrie

It has been said that each generation must find its destiny or betray it. Mamie Phipps Clark fulfilled her destiny by pioneering developmental studies that helped remove race barriers in education. Her alma maters, Howard and Columbia universities, recognized these contributions by presenting her with distinguished alumni awards. Williams College and the Pratt Institute awarded her with honorary doctorate degrees, and the American Association of University Women presented its noted fellowship award, all citing her landmark research on the psychological effects of racism and segregation.

Mamie Clark fulfilled another aspect of her destiny when she founded the Northside Center for Children in New York ( 1946). Throughout her life, Clark blended her intellect, insight, and humanism in an effort to enhance the lives of children who often were misinterpreted, misjudged, or neglected because of environment or prevailing psychological theories. Her contributions to an evolving field, developmental psychology, were all the more significant during the changing social and political climate of the late 1940s and 1950s. An independent thinker and a devoted wife and mother, she combined her commitment to scientific research and social advancement throughout her life.


FAMILY BACKGROUND AND EDUCATION

Mamie Katherine Phipps, the eldest of two children born to Harold H. and Katie F. Phipps, was born in Hot Springs, Arkansas. Her father, a native of St. Kitts, British West Indies, was a self-made individual with high standards who financed his education through medical school. Her mother shared Harold Phipps' drive for achievement and assisted him in his medical practice. Mamie Phipps' brother, Harold, is now a retired dentist living in Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Her elementary and secondary education in the small, racially segregated town was, by her own accounting, deficient in substantive areas. She later commented, however, that in retrospect this experience, together with the security of a warm and protective extended family, appeared to have been the near ideal for later

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Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Copyright Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Part I Overview 1
  • Historical and Contemporary Perspectives 3
  • Part II the Women and Their Contributions 11
  • Anne Anastasi (1908- ) 13
  • Nancy Bayley (1899- ) 23
  • Sandra Lipsitz Bem (1944- ) 30
  • Jeanne Humphrey Block (1923-1981) 40
  • Charlotte M. BÜhler (1893-1974) 49
  • Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) 57
  • Mamie Phipps Clark (1917-1983) 66
  • Florence L. Denmark (1931- ) 75
  • Else Frenkel-Brunswik (1908-1958) 88
  • Anna Freud (1895-1982) 96
  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (1910- ) 104
  • Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972) 117
  • Florence Laura Goodenough (1886-1959) 125
  • Jacqueline Jarrett Goodnow (1924- ) 134
  • Edna Heidbreder (1890-1985) 143
  • Ravenna Helson (1925- ) 151
  • Mary Henle (1913- ) 161
  • Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886-1939) 173
  • Karen Horney (1885-1952) 184
  • BÄrbel Inhelder (1913- ) 197
  • Marie Jahoda (1907- ) 207
  • Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) 220
  • Eleanor Emmons Maccoby (1917- ) 230
  • Clara Mayo (1931-1981) 238
  • Maria Montessori (1870-1952) 246
  • Bernice L. Neugarten (1916- ) 256
  • Carolyn Robertson Payton (1925- ) 266
  • Pauline (pat) Snedden Sears (1908- ) 275
  • Virginia Staudt Sexton (1916- ) 285
  • Carolyn Wood Sherif (1922-1982) 297
  • Janet Taylor Spence (1923- ) 307
  • Bonnie Ruth Strickland (1936- ) 317
  • Thelma Gwinn Thurstone (1897- ) 327
  • Leona E. Tyler (1906- ) 335
  • Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) 342
  • Beth Lucy Wellman (1895-1952) 350
  • Part III Awards and Recognition 359
  • Selected Award-Winning Contributions 361
  • Part IV Bibliographic Resources 379
  • Women in Psychology: Bibliographic Resources 381
  • Part V Appendices 399
  • Appendix A - A Chronology of Birth Years 401
  • Appendix B - Places of Birth 403
  • Appendix C - Major Fields 405
  • Index 409
  • About the Contributors 435
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