Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook

By Agnes N. O'Connell; Nancy Felipe Russo | Go to book overview

ELSE FRENKEL-BRUNSWIK (1908-1958)

M. Brewster Smith

Else Frenkel-Brunswik came to the United States as part of the Jewish intellectual immigration of the Hitler years. She brought a rich European education with special qualifications both in the logical positivist philosophy of science and in psychoanalysis--both cultural gifts from her home in Vienna. Since personality and clinical psychology were just emerging in an American psychology dominated by neobehaviorism, the time was right for her contributions toward legitimizing psychoanalytic ideas. She was central to the classic research on the authoritarian personality. Her related concept of intolerance of ambiguity is a permanent contribution to the psychology of personality.


FAMILY BACKGROUND

Else Frenkel was born on August 18, 1908, in Lemberg, a Polish town that was part of the Austro-Hungarian empire. She was the second daughter of Abraham and Helene (Gelernter) Frenkel, who moved to Vienna in 1914 to escape the pogrom of that year in which Jews were randomly attacked. In Vienna Abraham Frenkel became a bank director, then owner of a private bank. Else Frenkel was educated there, graduating from the gymnasium in 1926 and in quick sequence taking her doctorate in psychology from the University of Vienna in 1930. She remained at the University of Vienna as the equivalent of assistant professor in the Psychological Institute until the Anschluss of 1938 that incorporated Austria into Nazi Germany.

A middle child and considered by members of her family the plainest of three sisters, Else Frenkel later attributed her intellectual achievements to her older sister's extraordinary beauty. She also referred cryptically to her "Cordelia complex" as it emerged in her psychoanalysis ( Frenkel-Brunswik, 1940). Their mother was especially proud of the beautiful oldest sister and tended to baby the youngest. Else Frenkel was closest to their father, who regretted the lack of a son and appreciated her intellectual accomplishments. When she later shocked her observantly Jewish parents by her attachment and subsequent marriage to

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Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Copyright Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Part I Overview 1
  • Historical and Contemporary Perspectives 3
  • Part II the Women and Their Contributions 11
  • Anne Anastasi (1908- ) 13
  • Nancy Bayley (1899- ) 23
  • Sandra Lipsitz Bem (1944- ) 30
  • Jeanne Humphrey Block (1923-1981) 40
  • Charlotte M. BÜhler (1893-1974) 49
  • Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) 57
  • Mamie Phipps Clark (1917-1983) 66
  • Florence L. Denmark (1931- ) 75
  • Else Frenkel-Brunswik (1908-1958) 88
  • Anna Freud (1895-1982) 96
  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (1910- ) 104
  • Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972) 117
  • Florence Laura Goodenough (1886-1959) 125
  • Jacqueline Jarrett Goodnow (1924- ) 134
  • Edna Heidbreder (1890-1985) 143
  • Ravenna Helson (1925- ) 151
  • Mary Henle (1913- ) 161
  • Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886-1939) 173
  • Karen Horney (1885-1952) 184
  • BÄrbel Inhelder (1913- ) 197
  • Marie Jahoda (1907- ) 207
  • Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) 220
  • Eleanor Emmons Maccoby (1917- ) 230
  • Clara Mayo (1931-1981) 238
  • Maria Montessori (1870-1952) 246
  • Bernice L. Neugarten (1916- ) 256
  • Carolyn Robertson Payton (1925- ) 266
  • Pauline (pat) Snedden Sears (1908- ) 275
  • Virginia Staudt Sexton (1916- ) 285
  • Carolyn Wood Sherif (1922-1982) 297
  • Janet Taylor Spence (1923- ) 307
  • Bonnie Ruth Strickland (1936- ) 317
  • Thelma Gwinn Thurstone (1897- ) 327
  • Leona E. Tyler (1906- ) 335
  • Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) 342
  • Beth Lucy Wellman (1895-1952) 350
  • Part III Awards and Recognition 359
  • Selected Award-Winning Contributions 361
  • Part IV Bibliographic Resources 379
  • Women in Psychology: Bibliographic Resources 381
  • Part V Appendices 399
  • Appendix A - A Chronology of Birth Years 401
  • Appendix B - Places of Birth 403
  • Appendix C - Major Fields 405
  • Index 409
  • About the Contributors 435
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