Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook

By Agnes N. O'Connell; Nancy Felipe Russo | Go to book overview

ELEANOR JACK GIBSON (1910- )

Fairfid M. Caudle

Eleanor Jack Gibson is widely recognized for her studies with the visual cliff that demonstrated the primacy of depth perception ( E. J. Gibson & Walk, 1960; Walk & Gibson, 1961), one of a long list of achievements. Gibson's early work influenced the study of verbal learning through modifying a Hullian perspective to encompass human learning. She has made substantive theoretical and empirical contributions to the psychology of reading, defined the field of perceptual learning, and stimulated the study of perceptual development. Through extending the concepts of ecological psychology to the study of perceptual development in infancy, she has established an entire field.

Her numerous awards include the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award ( 1968) and the Gold Medal Award ( 1986) from the American Psychological Association, and the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award ( 1981) from the Society for Research in Child Development. She was elected to the National Academy of Education ( 1972) and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences ( 1977) and is one of the few women elected to the National Academy of Sciences ( 1971).


FAMILY BACKGROUND AND EDUCATION

Gibson has described her childhood as occurring in "an atmosphere of middle- class respectability" and has wondered herself how she "managed to break away so far from this background and emerge as an intellectual" ( E. J. Gibson, 1980, p. 239). She was born December 7, 1910, in Peoria, Illinois. Her father, William Alexander Jack, was a businessman specializing in wholesale hardware. Her mother, Isabel Grier Jack, was not employed outside the home. While her father did not complete college, her mother was a graduate of Smith College, as were three aunts. Her only sibling, Emily Jack, was born five years after her on September 27, 1916, and also went on to a career.

After finishing grade school at age twelve, Eleanor Jack went on to high school, where she found it beneficial to conceal her high grades from boyfriends

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Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Copyright Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Part I Overview 1
  • Historical and Contemporary Perspectives 3
  • Part II the Women and Their Contributions 11
  • Anne Anastasi (1908- ) 13
  • Nancy Bayley (1899- ) 23
  • Sandra Lipsitz Bem (1944- ) 30
  • Jeanne Humphrey Block (1923-1981) 40
  • Charlotte M. BÜhler (1893-1974) 49
  • Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) 57
  • Mamie Phipps Clark (1917-1983) 66
  • Florence L. Denmark (1931- ) 75
  • Else Frenkel-Brunswik (1908-1958) 88
  • Anna Freud (1895-1982) 96
  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (1910- ) 104
  • Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972) 117
  • Florence Laura Goodenough (1886-1959) 125
  • Jacqueline Jarrett Goodnow (1924- ) 134
  • Edna Heidbreder (1890-1985) 143
  • Ravenna Helson (1925- ) 151
  • Mary Henle (1913- ) 161
  • Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886-1939) 173
  • Karen Horney (1885-1952) 184
  • BÄrbel Inhelder (1913- ) 197
  • Marie Jahoda (1907- ) 207
  • Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) 220
  • Eleanor Emmons Maccoby (1917- ) 230
  • Clara Mayo (1931-1981) 238
  • Maria Montessori (1870-1952) 246
  • Bernice L. Neugarten (1916- ) 256
  • Carolyn Robertson Payton (1925- ) 266
  • Pauline (pat) Snedden Sears (1908- ) 275
  • Virginia Staudt Sexton (1916- ) 285
  • Carolyn Wood Sherif (1922-1982) 297
  • Janet Taylor Spence (1923- ) 307
  • Bonnie Ruth Strickland (1936- ) 317
  • Thelma Gwinn Thurstone (1897- ) 327
  • Leona E. Tyler (1906- ) 335
  • Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) 342
  • Beth Lucy Wellman (1895-1952) 350
  • Part III Awards and Recognition 359
  • Selected Award-Winning Contributions 361
  • Part IV Bibliographic Resources 379
  • Women in Psychology: Bibliographic Resources 381
  • Part V Appendices 399
  • Appendix A - A Chronology of Birth Years 401
  • Appendix B - Places of Birth 403
  • Appendix C - Major Fields 405
  • Index 409
  • About the Contributors 435
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