Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook

By Agnes N. O'Connell; Nancy Felipe Russo | Go to book overview

MARIA MONTESSORI
(1870-1952)

Nancy M. Rambusch

Maria Montessori, the first woman granted a medical degree in Italy, devised "psychopedagogy," an educational method for young children. To the tradition of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Johann Pestalozzi, and Friedrich Froebel, Montessori joined a scientific spirit, exemplified by her clinical experience and expressed by her as an impressionistic developmental psychology. Montessori worked first with deficient, and then with ordinary children with startling results. The work done in her Children's Houses brought her international acclaim. Montessori developed a worldwide network of schools and societies devoted to her "method." After her death, Montessori's ideas reentered the free market of educational theory and practice. Montessori's interactionist thought anticipated many contemporary developmental constructs.


FAMILY BACKGROUND AND EDUCATION

Maria Montessori was born August 31, 1870, in Chiaravalle, Italy, the only child of Alessandro Montessori, a civil servant in the state-run tobacco industry, and Renilde Stoppani, a homemaker.

Montessori, an unexceptional student except in mathematics, intended originally to become an engineer. While attending a technical secondary school, she decided to become a physician. Since no Italian woman had ever done this, only Pope Leo XIII's extraordinary support gained her admission ( 1892) to the University of Rome medical school, from which she graduated in 1896. In 1897 she audited university courses in pedagogy and in 1901, intent on further integrating her medical training and her emergent educational interests, she reenrolled in the university to study physical anthropology, experimental psychology, and educational philosophy.


CAREER DEVELOPMENT

In 1895 Montessori won a competitive post as assistant doctor (aggiunto di medecina), studying pediatrics and attending a psychiatric clinic. In 1896 she

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Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Copyright Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Part I Overview 1
  • Historical and Contemporary Perspectives 3
  • Part II the Women and Their Contributions 11
  • Anne Anastasi (1908- ) 13
  • Nancy Bayley (1899- ) 23
  • Sandra Lipsitz Bem (1944- ) 30
  • Jeanne Humphrey Block (1923-1981) 40
  • Charlotte M. BÜhler (1893-1974) 49
  • Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) 57
  • Mamie Phipps Clark (1917-1983) 66
  • Florence L. Denmark (1931- ) 75
  • Else Frenkel-Brunswik (1908-1958) 88
  • Anna Freud (1895-1982) 96
  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (1910- ) 104
  • Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972) 117
  • Florence Laura Goodenough (1886-1959) 125
  • Jacqueline Jarrett Goodnow (1924- ) 134
  • Edna Heidbreder (1890-1985) 143
  • Ravenna Helson (1925- ) 151
  • Mary Henle (1913- ) 161
  • Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886-1939) 173
  • Karen Horney (1885-1952) 184
  • BÄrbel Inhelder (1913- ) 197
  • Marie Jahoda (1907- ) 207
  • Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) 220
  • Eleanor Emmons Maccoby (1917- ) 230
  • Clara Mayo (1931-1981) 238
  • Maria Montessori (1870-1952) 246
  • Bernice L. Neugarten (1916- ) 256
  • Carolyn Robertson Payton (1925- ) 266
  • Pauline (pat) Snedden Sears (1908- ) 275
  • Virginia Staudt Sexton (1916- ) 285
  • Carolyn Wood Sherif (1922-1982) 297
  • Janet Taylor Spence (1923- ) 307
  • Bonnie Ruth Strickland (1936- ) 317
  • Thelma Gwinn Thurstone (1897- ) 327
  • Leona E. Tyler (1906- ) 335
  • Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) 342
  • Beth Lucy Wellman (1895-1952) 350
  • Part III Awards and Recognition 359
  • Selected Award-Winning Contributions 361
  • Part IV Bibliographic Resources 379
  • Women in Psychology: Bibliographic Resources 381
  • Part V Appendices 399
  • Appendix A - A Chronology of Birth Years 401
  • Appendix B - Places of Birth 403
  • Appendix C - Major Fields 405
  • Index 409
  • About the Contributors 435
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