Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook

By Agnes N. O'Connell; Nancy Felipe Russo | Go to book overview

BETH LUCY WELLMAN (1895-1952)

Marie Skodak Crissey

Beth Lucy Wellman's studies of the mental development of children in enriched and deprived environments, and follow-up observations of the same children into young adulthood, were the first to challenge the then generally held concept that intelligence was largely immune to environmental influences and that the IQ was a stable and constant measure of intelligence. The discovery that environmental influences such as parental stimulation, appropriate preschool experiences, and intellectually stimulating circumstances did indeed affect the individual's mental functioning level opened the door to programs aimed at improving the competencies of groups and individuals who were assumed to be of limited initial capability. Wellman's pioneering studies were, in a sense, the scientific foundations for many of the Great Society efforts of the 1960s. Programs such as Head Start, Home Start, early education of the mentally retarded, some aspects of mainstreaming, and various educational innovations owe their beginnings to the implications of Wellman's researches. Few studies begun in academic circles have had as much influence on public policy.


FAMILY BACKGROUND AND EDUCATION

Beth Lucy Wellman was born in Clarion, Iowa, on June 10, 1895. Her parents, Alonzo and Hannah Wellman, had two additional daughters, Rowena and Roxanne. From the small farming market town of Clarion, the family moved to the college town of Ames, Iowa, where Wellman graduated from high school. They moved again to Waterloo, a somewhat larger city, closer to Iowa State Teachers College at Cedar Falls, where Beth Wellman received a B.A. degree. During her college years, she worked part time as a secretary, and after graduation she was secretary to the administrators of the college.

While Beth Wellman was in high school ( 1908-1912), half a world away Alfred Binet had devised a series of test items that proved useful in estimating a child's mental age and classifying the child in relation to age peers. Brought to the United States by Henry Goddard, the test was elaborated and standardized

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Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Copyright Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Part I Overview 1
  • Historical and Contemporary Perspectives 3
  • Part II the Women and Their Contributions 11
  • Anne Anastasi (1908- ) 13
  • Nancy Bayley (1899- ) 23
  • Sandra Lipsitz Bem (1944- ) 30
  • Jeanne Humphrey Block (1923-1981) 40
  • Charlotte M. BÜhler (1893-1974) 49
  • Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) 57
  • Mamie Phipps Clark (1917-1983) 66
  • Florence L. Denmark (1931- ) 75
  • Else Frenkel-Brunswik (1908-1958) 88
  • Anna Freud (1895-1982) 96
  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (1910- ) 104
  • Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972) 117
  • Florence Laura Goodenough (1886-1959) 125
  • Jacqueline Jarrett Goodnow (1924- ) 134
  • Edna Heidbreder (1890-1985) 143
  • Ravenna Helson (1925- ) 151
  • Mary Henle (1913- ) 161
  • Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886-1939) 173
  • Karen Horney (1885-1952) 184
  • BÄrbel Inhelder (1913- ) 197
  • Marie Jahoda (1907- ) 207
  • Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) 220
  • Eleanor Emmons Maccoby (1917- ) 230
  • Clara Mayo (1931-1981) 238
  • Maria Montessori (1870-1952) 246
  • Bernice L. Neugarten (1916- ) 256
  • Carolyn Robertson Payton (1925- ) 266
  • Pauline (pat) Snedden Sears (1908- ) 275
  • Virginia Staudt Sexton (1916- ) 285
  • Carolyn Wood Sherif (1922-1982) 297
  • Janet Taylor Spence (1923- ) 307
  • Bonnie Ruth Strickland (1936- ) 317
  • Thelma Gwinn Thurstone (1897- ) 327
  • Leona E. Tyler (1906- ) 335
  • Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) 342
  • Beth Lucy Wellman (1895-1952) 350
  • Part III Awards and Recognition 359
  • Selected Award-Winning Contributions 361
  • Part IV Bibliographic Resources 379
  • Women in Psychology: Bibliographic Resources 381
  • Part V Appendices 399
  • Appendix A - A Chronology of Birth Years 401
  • Appendix B - Places of Birth 403
  • Appendix C - Major Fields 405
  • Index 409
  • About the Contributors 435
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