Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook

By Agnes N. O'Connell; Nancy Felipe Russo | Go to book overview

SELECTED AWARD-WINNING CONTRIBUTIONS

Nancy Felipe Russo, Agnes N. O'Connell, and Melinda Deacon

A critical lesson from the history of women in psychology is that women's activities and contributions in the field must be considered in their social and historical context ( O'Connell & Russo, 1980, 1983, 1988; Russo & Denmark, 1987; Scarborough & Furumoto, 1987). This is not unique to women: both genders influence and are influenced by the systems in which they find themselves. The milieu affects whether innovations will be encouraged and if observers will perceive them as meaningful and valuable. Thus, recognition of contributions by awards plays a direct role in encouraging and shaping the production and preservation of theories, methods, and applications in a field. Awards create a climate that values accomplishment and inspires achievement. Labels attached through an awards process can also determine what work will be preserved and how it will be transmitted to following generations ( Albert, 1975; Csikszentmihalyi, 1988; Mooney, 1963).

In 1951 Mildred Mitchell pointed out that women in psychology had not attained visibility and distinction "in proportion to their numbers and qualifications" ( Mitchell, 1951, p. 200). In 1980 Russo and O'Connell reviewed the honors, awards, and historical attention to women contributors in psychology, and observed little change in the basic truth of that statement. Mitchell's statement continues to be accurate. According to the 1988 membership statistics of the American Psychological Association (APA), the major psychological association of the United States, proportionally fewer women than men have been elected to APA Fellow status "in recognition of unusual and outstanding contributions or performance." Of the 38,054 men in the member category, 9 percent are Fellows; of the 20,595 women, 3 percent are Fellows ( American Psychological Association, 1988, p. vii). The biographies in this volume are strong testimony to the quantity, richness, and diversity of women's contributions throughout the history of the field. What is required to increase the visibility and recognition of women's contributions?

In response to Mitchell, psychologist-historian E. G. Boring ( 1951) observed that the prestige of a discovery is more than a function of its merit or social

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Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Copyright Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Part I Overview 1
  • Historical and Contemporary Perspectives 3
  • Part II the Women and Their Contributions 11
  • Anne Anastasi (1908- ) 13
  • Nancy Bayley (1899- ) 23
  • Sandra Lipsitz Bem (1944- ) 30
  • Jeanne Humphrey Block (1923-1981) 40
  • Charlotte M. BÜhler (1893-1974) 49
  • Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) 57
  • Mamie Phipps Clark (1917-1983) 66
  • Florence L. Denmark (1931- ) 75
  • Else Frenkel-Brunswik (1908-1958) 88
  • Anna Freud (1895-1982) 96
  • Eleanor Jack Gibson (1910- ) 104
  • Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972) 117
  • Florence Laura Goodenough (1886-1959) 125
  • Jacqueline Jarrett Goodnow (1924- ) 134
  • Edna Heidbreder (1890-1985) 143
  • Ravenna Helson (1925- ) 151
  • Mary Henle (1913- ) 161
  • Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886-1939) 173
  • Karen Horney (1885-1952) 184
  • BÄrbel Inhelder (1913- ) 197
  • Marie Jahoda (1907- ) 207
  • Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) 220
  • Eleanor Emmons Maccoby (1917- ) 230
  • Clara Mayo (1931-1981) 238
  • Maria Montessori (1870-1952) 246
  • Bernice L. Neugarten (1916- ) 256
  • Carolyn Robertson Payton (1925- ) 266
  • Pauline (pat) Snedden Sears (1908- ) 275
  • Virginia Staudt Sexton (1916- ) 285
  • Carolyn Wood Sherif (1922-1982) 297
  • Janet Taylor Spence (1923- ) 307
  • Bonnie Ruth Strickland (1936- ) 317
  • Thelma Gwinn Thurstone (1897- ) 327
  • Leona E. Tyler (1906- ) 335
  • Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) 342
  • Beth Lucy Wellman (1895-1952) 350
  • Part III Awards and Recognition 359
  • Selected Award-Winning Contributions 361
  • Part IV Bibliographic Resources 379
  • Women in Psychology: Bibliographic Resources 381
  • Part V Appendices 399
  • Appendix A - A Chronology of Birth Years 401
  • Appendix B - Places of Birth 403
  • Appendix C - Major Fields 405
  • Index 409
  • About the Contributors 435
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