The biographical sketches that accompany the photographs in this volume were derived from numerous sources and written by Paul Cochran, David Coffey, and Grady McWhiney.
Boatner, Mark M III. The Civil War Dictionary. Revised edition. New York: David McKay Company, 1988.
Current, Richard N. ed. Encyclopedia of the Confederacy. 4 vols. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Davis, William C. ed. The Confederate General. 6 vols. National Historical Society, 1991.
Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Union. New York: Facts on File, 1988.
_____. Who Was Who in the Confederacy. New York: Facts on File, 1988.
Warner, Ezra. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959.
_____. Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964.
We acknowledge the cooperation of the United States Army Military History Institute at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania for photographs of John C. Breckinridge, Gordon Granger, William J. Hardee , Joseph Hooker, Peter J. Osterhaus, Philip Henry Sheridan , Carter L. Stevenson, and Thomas J. Wood.
We acknowledge the cooperation of the Library of Congress for photographs of Braxton Bragg, Ambrose Everett Burnside, Patrick Cleburne, Ulysses S. Grant, James Longstreet, William T. Sherman , and George H. Thomas.
The photographs of William B. Bate and John K. Jackson were taken from Ezra Warner Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders ( Louisiana State University Press, 1959).