The Psychology of Ego-Involvements: Social Attitudes & Identifications

By Muzafer Sherif; Hadley Cantril | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 4
THE ATTITUDE FORMULATION EXTENDED
TO CONCRETE SITUATIONS

The conceptual scheme offered here towards the psychology of attitudes may appear to be an "artifact" based only on the results of laboratory experiments which have no counterparts in real life situations. So we turn now to some examples of more everyday life situations which seem to us to confirm the reality of our formulations. We cite here only a few of the many studies, ranging from relatively simple demonstrations to complex reactions of daily life, that confirm the conclusions reached in the more strictly laboratory settings.1

Irrespective of the particular way in which an individual acquires an attitude in social life, the literature of social psychology is rife with data which support the formulations reached from our survey of general psychology: that perception and judgment are selective and occur within a referential framework, that frames or points of reference are inevitably established if an individual repeatedly faces the same stimulus situation, that these frames and points of reference are by no means always confined to consciously accepted instructions or imposed norms but can become established without the individual's realization of it, and that once established these frames and points of reference serve as anchorages for perception and judgment.

____________________
1
We might incidentally call attention here to the fact that most experiments on humans in the psychological laboratory are social situations at least to the extent that they involve verbal material in the instructions given to subjects. The variety of possible meanings of stimulus situations persistently gives trouble since meanings so readily intrude themselves. [38, 76, 94] It is well known that a subject's "set" or "attitude" can profoundly affect his reactions in psychological experiments. It may also be remembered that Titchener, in trying to create the "proper" set, advocated the use of "trained observers." From our present vantage point these results obtained only from observers trained to rule out objective references seem highly artificial.

-60-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Psychology of Ego-Involvements: Social Attitudes & Identifications
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 525

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.