Toward Improving Ph. D. Programs

By Ernest V. Hollis | Go to book overview

I
Long-Range Forces that Have Shaped Doctoral Work

THOSE WHO would improve Ph.D. programs need some understanding of the forces and conditions that have shaped practice respecting the degree as it is given now in American universities. In our educational and cultural history are to be found the roots of those differences of opinion that characterize contemporary discussion of graduate work. Such differences have to do with the goals of doctoral study, with its content and method, and with the selection and guidance of candidates for the degree. Controversies respecting these matters are by no means novel; we need to know something of their background and of the reasons that account for changing emphases. It is necessary, therefore, to begin this book with a sketch designed to show the evolution of practice in American graduate schools so far as Ph.D. programs are concerned. The reader will understand, of course, that such a sketch cannot purport to deal with the whole range of graduate education, since it will not include consideration of that notable array of problems that relate to the master's degree. But it will endeavor to provide an adequate historical basis for what is to be dealt with in this volume.

An individual's whole theory of cultural values enters, often unconsciously, into the position he takes on particular issues in graduate work. History suggests that our convictions and practices in this area have been compounded of two antithetical educational traditions. Our most deeply ingrained folkways in higher education derive from the essentially aristocratic colonial college of liberal arts and have been 300 years in the making. Until at least the end of the nineteenth century such institutions

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Toward Improving Ph. D. Programs
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 204

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.