The New Evolution: Zoogenesis

By Austin H. Clark | Go to book overview

CHAPTER XVI
THE CONTINUITY OF LIFE

NO UNDERSTANDING of animal life is possible without an appreciation of the ways in which the perpetuation of the species is assured. Continuity of life from one generation to the next is brought about by three apparently quite different processes.

In the first place, there is the usual sexual reproduction. Secondly, many animals are reproduced by females only, through the development of unfertilized eggs. In the third place, an animal may divide in two, or may produce buds which grow into new animals; these may separate from the parent, or may remain attached to it.

Many different kinds of animals, such as all sponges, all cœlenterates, many flatworms, some jointed worms or annelids, the phoronids, the polyzoans, some tunicates, the cephalodiscids, some brittle-stars and starfishes, and a few crustaceans, either form buds which become detached and develop into independent animals, or, usually at an early stage, divide into two or more parts, each of which develops into an independent animal.

Many of these types, especially the sponges, the cœlenterates, the polyzoans and the tunicates, besides producing buds which become detached, also produce buds which remain attached to the parent animal,

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