PRIVATE AND FOREIGN SCHOOLS
FOR THE PAST century government, or public, education in Egypt has been supplemented by private and foreign institutions at most levels, such extension of educational opportunity being regarded with tolerance if not always with unqualified enthusiasm by the government.
Private schools must be registered, their staff, program, and physical facilities approved, and they are subject to government inspection. Some are operated for profit as private ventures by individuals, while others are established and administered by organizations interested in providing for a religious group or for a foreign community. Most of these schools accept pupils of other denominations or nationalities.
Foreign schools have been established for the most part by religious interests, usually as mission schools. Protestant schools are maintained by the American United Presbyterian Mission and the Church Missionary Society of England, while Roman Catholic schools have been established by French and Italian religious orders. In addition, there are lay schools for British, American, French, Italian, and Greek children. Table 16 gives the enrollment in private, foreign, and government schools for 1942-43, showing that approximately 25 percent of all pupils in elementary (including all levels below the secondary) schools were in private and foreign schools, but slightly more than 50 percent of secondary-school pupils were in such schools. Detailed statistics for that year show that in primary schools alone, 25 percent of the pupils were in government schools, 27 percent in foreign schools, and 48 percent in private schools. Unpublished statistics for 1944- 45 show that government and private schools had increased their enrollments partly at the expense of foreign schools. This situation developed from the government's action in eliminating fees in its own primary schools and granting subsidies to private and foreign schools which agreed to eliminate fees. More private than foreign schools accepted the subsidies in lieu of tuition fees. Approximately 80 percent of all children in private elementary schools are in Muslim private schools or those maintained by