PRIVATE AND FOREIGN SCHOOLS
TWO TYPES of schools function outside the government system: private schools, which are owned and operated by Iraqi citizens, either individual or in association; and foreign schools, which are owned and operated by foreign individuals or groups. Since Iraqi parents are forbidden by law to send their children to foreign primary schools, there are no foreign schools below the intermediate level in Iraq, with the exception of 5 primary schools for Iranian boys. Table 35 presents enrollment figures for all types of primary and seconday schools in Iraq as of 1945-46.
Both private and foreign schools are obliged to conform to governmental regulations and to have governmental approval of housing, qualifications of teachers, curriculums, and textbooks. They must follow the government's courses of study for Arabic language and social studies, and teachers of these subjects are appointed by the Ministry of Education. Admission to the first and fourth years of secondary schools is conditional upon having passed the public primary and intermediate-school examinations.
Curriculums for both private and foreign schools follow those of the government schools so that pupils will not be handicapped in the public examinations. Since all foreign secondary schools are American, English is emphasized, and in the last two years of the course some subjects are taught in that language. The private schools for Jews teach Hebrew language and literature in the primary sections and English and French language and literature in the secondary schools. The better students in the Jewish schools are prepared to take the examinations for French certificates, as are pupils in the schools which were founded as French missionary schools.
Private schools fall into three categories: private ventures, schools maintained by associations interested in raising the standard of national culture, and sectarian schools. The private ventures are conducted for profit and appeal especially to pupils who do not find places in the government schools. Associations that maintain schools are usually composed of citizens