Philosophical Aspects of Culture

By Bertram Morris | Go to book overview

NOTES

PART I

CHAPTER
1.
Ruth Benedict, Patterns of Culture ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1934).
2
D. F. Aberle et. al., "The Functional Prerequisites of a Society", Ethics, LX 2 (Jan. 1950), 100-111.
3
Cf., however, Stephen Pepper's interesting statement of the function of religion as providing social solidarity. But note that solidarity can be attained by religions other than religious -- e.g. political, economic, military, or even aesthetic. The Sources of Value ( Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1958), pp. 584 ff.
4
B. Malinowski, "Culture", Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Vol. 4: "The savage is not more rational than modern man nor is he more superstitutious. He is more limited, less liable to free imaginings and to the confidence trick of new inventions . . . There are domains on which magic never encroaches. The making of fire, basketry, the actual production of stone implements, the making of strings of mats, cooking and all minor domestic activities although extremely important are never associated with magic. Some of them become the center of religious practices and of mythology, as, for example, fire or cooking or stone implements; but magic is never connected with their production. The reason is that ordinary skill guided by sound knowledge is sufficient to set man on the right path and to give him certainty of correct and complete control of these activities." p. 636.

Also: "But magic is never used to replace work. In gardening the digging or the clearing of the ground or the strength of the fences or quality of the supports is never scamped because stronger magic has been used over them. The native knows well that mechanical construction must be produced by human labor according to strict rules of craft. He knows that all the processes which have been in the soil can be controlled by human effort to a certain extent but not beyond, and it is only this beyond which he tries to influence by magic. For his experience and his reason tell him that in certain matters his efforts and his intelligence are of no avail whatever. On the other hand, magic has been known to help; so at least his tradition tells him." p. 637. Copyright 1931, The Macmillan Company. Quoted by permission.

5
A. L. Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn, Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions (Papers of the Peaboby Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University. Vol. XLVII, no. 1. Cambridge, 1952).
6
Op. cit., p. 46. Cf. also Franz Boas, Mind of Primitive Man ( New York: Macmillan, Rev. Ed. 1938), p. 159.

-283-

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Philosophical Aspects of Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Part One - On Culture 1
  • Chapter 1 - From Cultural Patterns To Cultural Norms 3
  • Chapter 2 - Criticism and Culture 32
  • Part Two - On Values 69
  • Chapter 3 - Non-Moral And Moral Values 71
  • Chapter 4 - On Moral Sanctions 103
  • Part Three - The Institutions of Power 133
  • Chapter 5 - Liberty, Spurious And Genuine 135
  • Chapter 6 - The Political Dimension 163
  • Chapter 7 - The Cultural Context 178
  • Part IV - The Institutions of Expression 203
  • Chapter 8 - Creativity in the Arts 205
  • Chapter 9 - The Art of Criticism 243
  • Chapter 10 - Society and the Arts Today 261
  • Notes 283
  • Index 297
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