Hard at Work in Factories and Mines: The Economics of Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution

By Carolyn Tuttle | Go to book overview

1
Child Labor in the Past and Present

The history of the economic development of Europe and North America includes numerous instances of child labor. Manufacturers in England, France, Belgium, Germany, Prussia as well as the United States used child labor during the initial stage of industrialization. In many cases, the employment of children was quite extensive and the conditions, hours and treatment appalling by twentieth-century standards. In Great Britain nearly half of the work force in the textile industry in 1833 was under the age of sixteen. Silk mills were the most extensive employers of children with 46 percent of its work force under sixteen, the cotton industry with 35 percent of its workers under sixteen and the flax and woollen industries employed roughly 40 percent of their workers under the age of sixteen. Further, children made up nearly half of the work force in coal mines ( Tuttle 1986: 2). French industrial enterprises in 1845 employed 143,665 children under the age of sixteen, which constituted 11.7 percent of the total industrial work force. Seventy-three percent of France's industrial child laborers were employed in one of the textile industries. In fact, children comprised roughly one fifth of the work force in these industries with cotton blends the highest with 23.9 percent of the work force under age sixteen and cotton and woollen close behind with 18.3 percent and 18.6 percent, respectively ( Weissbach 1989:16- 19). A similar story can be told for Belgium where the textiles were the greatest employers of children. The linen, hemp and lace industries hired 40 percent of its workers under the age of sixteen while the cotton textiles had 27 percent of its entire work force under sixteen years of age. As in Britain, the percentage of children working in coal mines was considerable with 22 percent of its employees under sixteen ( Statistique de la Belgique, Recensement General 1846). Goldin and Sokoloff estimate from a sample of firms of the U. S. Federal Census of Manufactures that 23 percent of all workers in manufacturing in the Northeast in 1820 were children. Again, they found large proportions of the labor force of textile establishments were children. Their estimates in 1820 show proportions comparable to those calculated for Britain, with half of the work force in cotton firms and 41 percent in wool firms

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Hard at Work in Factories and Mines: The Economics of Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 310

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.